Lindow N.L.,Biohabitats Inc.
ASABE - TMDL 2010: Watershed Management to Improve Water Quality | Year: 2010
Montgomery County is a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) community in Maryland, and thereby a regulating entity for the new Maryland Department of the Environment regulation of environmental site design (ESD) to the maximum extent practicable. The County is also a regulated community under the Clean Water Act and as set forth in their national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) permit and total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, which include waste load allocations for nitrogen, phosphorus, total suspended sediment, bacteria, and trash within the different watersheds of the County. In order to track their ongoing effort to treat runoff from impervious areas and reduce pollutants in their surface waterways, the County applied the Watershed Treatment Model (WTM) to inventory the baseline status and forecast the results of implementing watershed restoration to the maximum extent practicable. Initial results of tracking bacterial loads in Rock Creek are presented. The WTM provided baseline bacterial load results within ten percent of direct surface water measurements. The assumptions being tested by the model include the ability of Montgomery County Capital Improvement Projects, ESD practices, habitat restoration, and programmatic practices to meet TMDL goals and adequately treat runoff from impervious cover, The assumption is that ESD practices will reduce necessary stormwater infrastructure costs by decentralizing management using more sustainable practices with lower life-cycle costs. We also explore how to target bacteria in the watershed and the bacteria removal efficiencies of the practices tested. For bacteria TMDLs, programmatic practices such as pet waste education and enforcement may be the most cost effective best management practices.
Jernigan A.,University of Arkansas |
May M.,University of Arkansas |
Potts T.,University of Arkansas |
Rodgers B.,University of Arkansas |
And 4 more authors.
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013
Algae harvested from a pilot water quality improvement technology at the Rockaway Wastewater Treatment Facility in New York were examined as a source of carbohydrates and lipids for the production of biofuels. Dried stocks of algae harvested during a 6-month period were used to feed the bioreactors, and the process to extract sugar from the natural wastewater grown algae was optimized. The length of storage time, storage conditions, sugar extraction process, and fuel production were studied. The results show that if the algae is stored dry (<25% moisture) the algae stock can be used for up to a year with good conversion of carbohydrates to sugars using a 10% w/v of dried algae. These optimized conditions extracted the maximum amount of sugar, which yielded an average of 0.11 (g butanol/g sugar) from the bioreactors year-round from a wide range of diatoms and other microalgae used to treat wastewater. Similarly, lipids could be obtained from the stored algal with value of >0.015 g/g algae even after a year in storage. These results demonstrate the potential for year round production of fuel from algae harvested as part of a water reclamation process. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 1013-1022, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.
Rey J.R.,University of Florida |
Walton W.E.,University of California at Riverside |
Roxanne C.,University of Florida |
O'Connell S.M.,University of Florida |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2012
Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. © 2012 by the authors.
Marrone J.F.,COWI North America Inc. |
Cooper B.D.,COWI North America Inc. |
Streb C.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Price E.,Cuyahoga County Planning Commission
Ports 2016: Port Engineering - Papers from Sessions of the 14th Triennial International Conference | Year: 2016
Steel sheet pile bulkheads are widely used for waterfront structures and shoreline stabilization. Due to their smooth surface and reflective nature they provide limited habitat opportunities for aquatic species. One example is Cleveland's Cuyahoga River navigation channel. The Cuyahoga River navigation channel has been transformed from a natural system to an important passageway for maritime commerce but is now a daunting corridor for transient fish. For fish, the ability to migrate upriver to spawn as adults and downriver to return to Lake Erie as juveniles is critical to their survival. The navigation channel poses challenges due to lack of habitat, limited food sources, low water velocity, and at certain times of the year, low dissolved oxygen and high water temperatures. Much of the navigable portion of river (5 miles/8 km) is lined on both sides with steel sheet pile bulkheads. The 27 foot (8.3m) dredged channel and the vertical sheet pile bulkheads provide very limited opportunities for habitat reestablishment. Since 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) has been developing, testing and implementing technologies to create habitat for larval and juvenile fish while maintaining the channel for navigation. Building on lessons learned from earlier work, the objective of the Green Bulkhead Project is to understand the altered system dynamics of the river, and use the principles of biomimicry to develop a replicable and durable solution for creating functional habitat for larval fish along the aging steel bulkheads. The project team has identified desired functions (shelter and nourishment) and defined project context, which includes designing the retrofit to withstand large sediment loads, passing vessels and ice within the channel. The conceptual design stage looked to biological models for inspiration. The selected alternative is a hanging steel basket that can be attached to the inner flanges of the bulkhead sheets. The baskets can be filled with a variety of natural materials to mimic natural river bank functions. The baskets have been designed to meet the difficult conditions in the navigation channel. Prototypes of the habitat enhancement baskets were installed in the fall of 2015. © 2016 ASCE.
Lyon J.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Lyon J.,Johns Hopkins University
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2013: Showcasing the Future - Proceedings of the 2013 Congress | Year: 2013
This paper discusses the need and methods associated with sustainable water resources management through potable water augmentation. Current climatic and anthropogenic conditions necessitate increased sustainability in water resources management. Access to drinking water is scarce in many parts of the world already. In other areas, potable water is inefficiently and wastefully supplied and utilized. Associated costs for traditional potable water and wastewater services can be used in determining the feasibility for potential supplementation methods. However, a truly comprehensive cost-benefit analysis would include the valuation of intangible socioeconomic factors and natural capital and would remove subsidies from the equation. Rainwater harvesting, greywater reuse, and beneficial wastewater reuse can be excellent tools for reducing potable demand and wastewater flows, while ultimately moving further away from a linear-use model of water consumption to a more cyclical-use model. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Potts T.,University of Arkansas |
Du J.,University of Arkansas |
Paul M.,University of Arkansas |
May P.,Biohabitats Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2012
This study ascertained the technical potential of producing biofuel from a naturally occurring macroalgae. The algae examined grow in Jamaica Bay, New York City, on water containing nitrates, phosphates, and carbon dioxide that comes from the atmosphere. The process consisted of manual and mechanical harvesting, drying, grinding, and subjecting the algal matter to acid hydrolysis to extract carbohydrates to form an algal sugar solution. Fermentation of that solution to butanol was performed with butanol ultimately removed by distillation. An average of 15.2 g/L of reducing sugars was extracted in the hydrolysate showing that macroalgae (Ulva lactuca) have significant usable carbohydrates after hydrolysis. It was found necessary to remove the excess solids from the hydrolysate prior to fermentation, as the productivity fell by 75% if this was not done. With the bacterial strains (Clostridium beijerinckii and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum) and the algal sugar solutions used, an acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation was used to make butanol. The butanol concentration in the fermentation broth reached about 4 g/L, which is close to the theoretical value for the sugar concentration obtained, and compares well (when adjusted for sugar concentration in the media) with values reported in the literature for other systems. The recovery of reducing sugars in the media during the pilot study was 0.29 g butanol/g sugar. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Brown T.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Berg J.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Underwood K.,Annapolis flyer cab
Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City - Proceedings of the 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference | Year: 2010
Drainage infrastructure, whether it be simply conveyance based or intended for other stormwater management criteria (e.g., detention, channel protection), typically results in the concentration of flows at discrete outfall points. Standard energy dissipation in the form of flared end sections with rip rap or engineered stilling basins frequently prove to be inadequate to protect against outfall erosion and related receiving stream degradation. The result seen throughout urbanizing watersheds is impaired habitat, excessive erosion and transport of sediment and nutrients to downstream sinks (e.g., ponds, lakes, estuaries, etc.), and compromised infrastructure. Based on an inventory of stormwater outfalls, Anne Arundel County, Maryland has concluded that the majority of pipe outfalls, rip-rap and gabion level spreaders and energy dissipation devices used to convey stormwater have failed and resulted in more than $600 million in damage to streams, adjacent wetlands, and steep slopes. A more thoughtful, cost-effective, and restorative approach to handling urban stormwater flows was clearly needed, and leaders in the County Department of Public Works decided to pursue design solutions that provide a full range of benefits including improved water quality, stable conveyance, increased groundwater recharge, floodplain reconnection, and wetland creation. The new preferred approach is often referred to as regenerative stormwater conveyance (RSC). Regenerative stormwater conveyance (RSC) systems are open-channel, sand seepage filtering systems that utilize a series of shallow aquatic pools, riffle weir grade controls, native vegetation, and underlying sand channel to treat and safely detain and convey storm flow, and convert stormwater to groundwater through infiltration. RSC systems combine features and treatment benefits of swales, infiltration, filtering, and wetland practices. RSC is applicable in new development, retrofit, and restoration scenarios and is fully consistent with and even expands upon the principles of low impact development, environmental site design and sustainable green infrastructure. © 2010 ASCE.
Jones P.S.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Jones P.S.,University of Maryland University College |
Davis A.P.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) | Year: 2013
On-site sequestration and accumulation of heavy metals in bioretention cells introduces the potential for short- and long-term management concerns regarding the metals' environmental availability, human health impacts, and implications for maintenance practices. Media samples from a 4-year-old bioretention cell were collected across the cell surface and to a depth of 90 cm to assess the spatial distribution of accumulated lead, copper, and zinc in the media. Analyses consisted of total metal, a five-step sequential extraction, bioavailable lead, and media pH and organic matter content. Metal concentrations in the media have increased substantially over the original levels but are well below regulatory cleanup thresholds. Metals are strongly bound to bioretention media and are largely immobile. Lead bioavailability is comparable to generic soil estimates. Most metal accumulation is near the inflow point in the top 3-12 cm of media. Based on trends observed after 4 years of operation, many years of capacity are estimated to remain in the cell with respect to metals. Regulatory cleanup thresholds are likely to be first reached at a localized hotspot near the inflow point, although routine maintenance actions may be able to delay attainment of such thresholds indefinitely. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Daoust R.,Arcadis |
Doss T.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Gorman M.,Northeast Midwest Institute |
Harwell M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Ulrich C.,LERS pro tem
Sapiens | Year: 2014
In 2004, a group of large-scale ecosystem restoration practitioners across the United States convened to start the process of sharing restoration science, management, and best practices under the auspices of a traditional conference umbrella. This forum allowed scientists and decision makers to interact in a new type of setting, with science being presented from a perspective that informed ecosystem restoration decisions, and decision makers articulating their decision needs in a manner that informed the types of science questions that needed to be addressed. From that beginning, a core ecosystem restoration practitioner group has formed a community of practice that continues to build and maintain momentum for this type of ecosystem restoration engagement. In the fall of 2013, this community of practice became permanently organized as the Large-scale Ecosystem Restoration Section within the Society for Ecological Restoration. Over the past decade, this community has evaluated and expanded upon ecosystem restoration themes ranging from defining and measuring success, adaptive management, adaptive governance, and linking science with management decision-making. Current and future themes include novel ecosystems, ecosystem goods and services, urban ecosystem restoration, and climate change and ecosystem resilience. © Licence Creative Commons.
Brown T.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Berg J.,Biohabitats Inc. |
Underwood K.,Annapolis flyer cab
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010: Challenges of Change - Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010 | Year: 2010
Drainage infrastructure, whether it be simply conveyance based or intended for other stormwater management criteria (e.g., detention, channel protection), typically results in the concentration of flows at discrete outfall points. Standard energy dissipation (e.g., flared end sections with rip rap or engineered stilling basins) together with overcontrol of discharge, frequently prove to be inadequate to protect against outfall erosion and related receiving stream degradation. The result seen throughout urbanizing watersheds is impaired habitat, excessive erosion and transport of sediment and nutrients to downstream sinks (e.g., ponds, lakes, estuaries, etc.), and compromised infrastructure. Based on an inventory of stormwater outfalls, Anne Arundel County, Maryland has concluded that the majority of pipe outfalls, rip-rap and gabion level spreaders and energy dissipation devices used to convey stormwater have failed and resulted in more than $600 million in damage to streams, adjacent wetlands, and steep slopes. A more thoughtful, cost-effective, and restorative approach to handling urban stormwater flows was clearly needed, and leaders in the County Department of Public Works decided to pursue design solutions that provide a full range of benefits including improved water quality, stable conveyance, increased groundwater recharge, floodplain reconnection, and wetland creation. The new preferred approach is often referred to as regenerative stormwater conveyance (RSC). Regenerative stormwater conveyance (RSC) systems are open-channel, sand seepage filtering systems that utilize a series of shallow aquatic pools, riffle weir grade controls, native vegetation, and underlying carbon-rich sand channel to treat and safely detain and convey storm flow, and convert stormwater to groundwater through infiltration. RSC systems combine features and treatment benefits of swales, infiltration, filtering, and wetland practices. RSC is applicable in new development, retrofit, and restoration scenarios and is fully consistent with and even expands upon the principles of low impact development, environmental site design and sustainable green infrastructure. © 2010 ASCE.