Biogen Idec, Inc. is a global biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, specializing in discovering, developing, and delivering therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative, hematologic and autoimmune diseases to patients worldwide. Wikipedia.
Huang Y.M.,Biogen Idec
Biotechnology progress | Year: 2010
A highly productive chemically defined fed-batch process was developed to maximize titer and volumetric productivity for Chinese hamster ovary cell-based recombinant protein manufacturing. Two cell lines producing a recombinant antibody (cell line A) and an Fc-fusion protein (cell line B) were used for development. Both processes achieved product titers of 10 g/L on day 18 under chemically defined conditions. For cell line B, the use of plant derived hydrolysates combined with the optimized chemically defined medium increased the titer to 13 g/L. Volumetric productivities were increased from a base line of about 200 mg/L/d to about 500 mg/L/d under chemically defined conditions and as high as 700 mg/L/d with cell line B using plant derived hydrolysates. Peak cell densities reached greater than 20E6 vc/mL, and cell viabilities were maintained above 80% on day 18 without the use of antiapoptotic genes or temperature shift. A rapid compound screening method was developed to effectively test positive factors within 72 h. Peak volumetric oxygen uptake rates (OUR) more than tripled from the baseline condition. Oxygen demand continued to increase after maximum cell density was reached with a maximal OUR of 3.7 mmol/L/h. The new process format was scaled up and verified at 100 L pilot scale using reactor equipment of similar configuration as used at manufacturing scale. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Clarke J.B.,Biogen Idec
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Biologics encompass a broad range of therapeutics that include proteins and other products derived from living systems. Although the multiplicity of target organs often seen with new chemical entities is generally not seen with biologics, they can produce significant adverse reactions. Examples include IL-12 and an anti-CD28 antibody that resulted in patient deaths and/or long stays in intensive care units. Mechanisms of toxicities can be categorized as pharmacological or nonpharmacological, with most, excepting hypersensitivity reactions, associated with the interaction of the agent with its planned target. Unexpected toxicities generally arise as a result of previously unknown biology. Manufacturing quality is a significant issue relative to the toxicity of biologics. The development of recombinant technology represented the single biggest advance leading to humanized products with minimal or no contaminants in comparison to products purified from animal tissues. Nevertheless, the type of manufacturing process including choice of cell type, culture medium, and purification method can result in changes to the protein. For example, a change to the closure system for erythropoietin led to an increase in aplastic anemia as a result of changing the immunogenicity characteristics of the protein. Monoclonal antibodies represent a major class of successful biologics. Toxicities associated with these agents include those associated with the binding of the complementary determining region (CDR) with the target. First dose reactions or infusion reactions are generally thought to be mediated via the Fc region of the antibody activating cytokine release, and have been observed with several antibodies. Usually, these effects (flu-like symptoms, etc.) are transient with subsequent dosing. Although biologics can have nonpharmacologic toxicities, these are less common than with small molecule drugs. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Demarest S.J.,Biogen Idec
mAbs | Year: 2011
The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a general approach for specifically targeting and treating human disease. In oncology, the therapeutic utility of mAbs is usually evaluated in the context of treatment with standard of care, as well as other small molecule targeted therapies. Many anti-cancer antibody modalities have achieved validation, including the targeting of growth factor and angiogenesis pathways, the induction of tumor cell killing or apoptosis, and the blocking of immune inhibitory mechanisms to stimulate anti-tumor responses. But, as with other targeted therapies, few antibodies are curative because of biological complexities that underlie tumor formation and redundancies in molecular pathways that enable tumors to adapt and show resistance to treatment. This review discusses the combinations of antibody therapeutics that are emerging to improve efficacy and durability within a specific biological mechanism (e.g., immunomodulation or the inhibition of angiogenesis) and across multiple biological pathways (e.g., inhibition of tumor growth and induction of tumor cell apoptosis).
Ransohoff R.M.,Biogen Idec |
Hafler D.A.,Yale University |
Lucchinetti C.F.,Rochester College
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2015
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been thought to be a complex and indecipherable disease, and poorly understood with regards to aetiology. Here, we suggest an emphatically positive view of progress over several decades in the understanding and treatment of MS, particularly focusing on advances made within the past 20 years. As with virtually all complex disorders, MS is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, formidable biochemical, bioinformatic, epidemiological and neuroimaging tools have been brought to bear on research into the causes of MS. While susceptibility to the disease is now relatively well accounted for, disease course is not and remains a salient challenge. In the therapeutic realm, numerous agents have become available, reflecting the fact that the disease can be attacked successfully at many levels and using varied strategies. Tailoring therapies to individuals, risk mitigation and selection of first-line as compared with second-line medications remain to be completed. In our view, the MS landscape has been comprehensively and irreversibly transformed by this progress. Here we focus on MS therapeutics - the most meaningful outcome of research efforts.
Rennert P.D.,Biogen Idec
Immunology Letters | Year: 2011
T cell, immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-1 (TIM-1) is the nominant member of a small family of related proteins that regulate immune cell activities. TIM-1 was initially characterized in a mouse congenic analysis of Th2 T cell responses and related pathology. Data accumulated to date suggest that TIM-1 regulates effector T cell function, and may play distinct roles in the activities of B cells, invariant NKT cells and epithelial cells. In addition, a variety of ligands for TIM-1 have been proposed. In this review I discuss recent data that have accumulated on the function of TIM-1, propose a model to explain how TIM-1 regulates effector T cell activity through recognition of distinct ligands, and review others functions of this increasingly fascinating protein. Of considerable interest are the novel findings that TIM-1 mediates virus entry and virulence. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.