Bulman L.S.,Scion Research |
Bradshaw R.E.,Massey University |
Fraser S.,University of Pretoria |
Martin-Garcia J.,University of Valladolid |
And 27 more authors.
Forest Pathology | Year: 2016
Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) caused by Dothistroma septosporum and Dothistroma pini is a damaging disease of pine in many countries. The disease led to the abandonment of planting susceptible Pinus species in parts of Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and North America. Although the disease can be effectively controlled using copper fungicides, this chemical is only routinely applied in forests in New Zealand and Australia. Other management tactics aimed at making conditions less favourable for disease development, such as thinning or pruning, may be effective on some, but not all, sites. Disease avoidance, by planting non-susceptible species, is the most common form of management in Europe, along with deployment of hosts with strong disease resistance. Although D. septosporum is present almost everywhere Pinus is grown, it is important that an effort is maintained to exclude introductions of new haplotypes that could increase virulence or enable host resistance to be overcome. A global strategy to exclude new introductions of Dothistroma and other damaging forest pathogens, facilitated by collaborative programmes and legislation, is needed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Drenkhan R.,Estonian University of Life Sciences |
Tomesova-Haataja V.,Mendel University in Brno |
Fraser S.,University of South Africa |
Bradshaw R.E.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences |
And 57 more authors.
Forest Pathology | Year: 2016
Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) is one of the most important diseases of pine. Although its notoriety stems from Southern Hemisphere epidemics in Pinus radiata plantations, the disease has increased in prevalence and severity in areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, during the last two decades. This increase has largely been attributed to expanded planting of susceptible hosts, anthropogenic dispersal of the causative pathogens and changes in climate conducive to disease development. The last comprehensive review of DNB was published in 2004, with updates on geographic distribution and host species in 2009. Importantly, the recognition that two species, Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, cause DNB emerged only relatively recently in 2004. These two species are morphologically very similar, and DNA-based techniques are needed to distinguish between them. Consequently, many records of host species affected or geographic location of DNB prior to 2004 are inconclusive or even misleading. The objectives of this review were (i) to provide a new database in which detailed records of DNB from 62 countries are collated; (ii) to chart the current global distribution of D. septosporum and D. pini; (iii) to list all known host species and to consider their susceptibility globally; (iv) to collate the published results of provenance trials; and (v) to consider the effects of site factors on disease incidence and severity. The review shows that DNB occurs in 76 countries, with D. septosporum confirmed to occur in 44 and D. pini in 13. There are now 109 documented Pinaceae host taxa for Dothistroma species, spanning six genera (Abies, Cedrus, Larix, Picea, Pinus and Pseudotsuga), with Pinus being the dominant host genus, accounting for 95 host taxa. The relative susceptibilities of these hosts to Dothistroma species are reported, providing a resource to inform species choice in forest planting. Country records show that most DNB outbreaks in Europe occur on Pinus nigra and its subspecies. It is anticipated that the collaborative work described in this review will both underpin a broader global research strategy to manage DNB in the future and provide a model for the study of other forest pathogens. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.