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Hwang J.-Y.,Sangmyung University | Kim W.S.,Korea Health Industry Development InstituteChungbuk | Jeong S.,Biofood CRO Co. | Kwon O.,Ewha Womans University | Kwon O.,A+ Network
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: By the year 2050, thirty-eight percent of the Korean population will be over the age of 65. Health care costs for Koreans over age 65 reached 15.4 trillion Korean won in 2011, accounting for a third of the total health care costs for the population. Chronic degenerative diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD), drive long-term health care costs at an alarming annual rate. In the elderly population, loss of independence is one of the main reasons for this increase in health care costs. Korean heath policies place a high priority on the prevention of CHD because it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This evidence-based study aims to the estimate potential health care cost savings resulting from the daily intake of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Potential cost savings associated with a reduced risk of CHD and the medical costs potentially avoided through risk reduction, including hospitalizations and physician services, were estimated using a Congressional Budget Office cost accounting methodology. RESULTS: The estimate of the seven-year (2005-2011) net savings in medical costs resulting from a reduction in the incidence of CHD among the elderly population through the daily use of omega-3 fatty acids was approximately 210 billion Korean won. Approximately 92,997 hospitalizations due to CHD could be avoided over the seven years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation in older individuals may yield substantial cost-savings by reducing the risk of CHD. It should be noted that additional health and cost benefits need to be revisited and re-evaluated as more is known about possible data sources or as new data become available. © 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition. Source


Rhee M.-Y.,Dongguk University | Cho B.,Seoul National University | Kim K.-I.,Seoul National University | Kim J.,Ewha Womans University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2014

We investigated the effect of Panax ginseng extract, which is rich in the ginsenoside protopanaxatriol (Ginseol K-g1), on blood pressure (BP). Adults over 20 years old with a systolic BP (SBP) between 120 and 159 mm Hg or a diastolic BP (DBP) between 80 and 99 mm Hg were included. At the end of an initial 2-week washout period, the patients were divided into three groups: the control group (placebo), the low-dose Ginseol K-g1 group (100 mg), and the high-dose Ginseol K-g1 (300 mg) group. The primary end point was the difference in seated SBP (seSBP) and seated DBP (seDBP) changes between the placebo and Ginseol K-g1 groups after 8 weeks of treatment. A total of 90 subjects participated in the study (mean age; 55.2 ± 11.8 years, 43 males). At week 8, levels of seSBP and seDBP were significantly decreased from baseline in the high-dose Ginseol K-g1 group (-3.1 mm Hg and -2.3 mm Hg, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant decrease in seSBP or seDBP in the control or low-dose Ginseol K-g1 groups. No significant difference of seSBP and seDBP was identified among the three treatment groups at week 8. In patients who had a seSBP ≥ 130 mm Hg or an seDBP ≥ 85 mm Hg, the high dose of Ginseol K-g1 decreased the BP compared with the control group at week 4; however, there was no significant difference at week 8. The proportions of patients who experienced adverse events were comparable among the treatment groups. In conclusion, Ginseol K-g1 has a favorable effect on BP after 4 weeks of treatment, especially at a high dose. However, the effect is not maintained over 8 weeks. (Clinical trial registration information is available at , identifier: NCT01483430.) © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Jeong S.,Biofood CRO Co. | Kim J.Y.,Biofood CRO Co. | Paek J.E.,Biofood CRO Co. | Kim J.,Biofood CRO Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition and Health | Year: 2013

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential fatty acids because humans cannot synthesize them de novo and must obtain them in their diet. Fish and fish oil are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Significant evidence of the beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in blood flow has been reported and putative mechanisms for improvement of blood flow include anti-thrombotic effects, lowered blood pressure, improved endothelial function, and anti-atherogenic effects. Edible oils containing omega-3 fatty acids were registered as functional ingredients in the Korea Health Functional Food Code. Although omega-3 fatty acids have been evaluated by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) based on scientific evidence, periodic reevaluation may be needed because emerging data related to omega-3 fatty acids have accumulated. Therefore, in this study, we re-evaluated scientific evidence for the effect of omega-3 fatty acids as a functional ingredient in health functional food on improvement of blood flow. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for collection of relevant human studies using the Medline and Cochrane, KISS, and IBIDS databases for the years 1955-2012. Search keywords were used by combination of terms related to omega-3 fatty acids and blood flow. The search was limited to human studies published in Korean, English, and Japanese. Using the KFDA's evidence based evaluation system for scientific evaluation of health claims, 112 human studies were identified and reviewed in order to evaluate the strength of the evidence supporting a relation between omega-3 fatty acids and blood flow. Among 112 studies, significant effects on improvement of blood flow were reported in 84 studies and the daily intake amount was ranged from 0.1 to 15 g. According to this methodology of systematic review, we concluded that there was possible evidence to support a relation between omega-3 fatty acid intake and blood flow. However, because inconsistent results have recently been reported, future studies should be monitored. © 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society. Source


Kwak J.S.,Biofood CRO Co. | Kwak J.S.,Ewha Womans University | Paek J.E.,Biofood CRO Co. | Paek J.E.,Ewha Womans University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition and Health | Year: 2014

Purpose: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used as an antiemetic agent. This systematic review was aimed at evaluation of the effect of dried ginger powder supplementation on improvement of nausea and vomiting associated with early pregnancy or motion sickness. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Cochrane, Science Direct, and KISS (Korean studies Information Service System) using keywords such as ginger or Zingiber officinale in combination with nausea, vomiting, motion sickness, or pregnancy, published in March 2013. Results: The strength of the evidence was evaluated on the selected 12 RCTs (randomized controlled trials). Eleven trials including 2,630 subjects showed that supplementation with dried ginger powder resulted in significant improvement of nausea or vomiting related to early pregnancy or motion sickness. Among the nine studies including 809 women in early pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation, ginger sup-plementation was superior to placebo in five studies (n = 305), and as effective as positive control (vitamin B6 or dimen-hydrinate) in four studies (n = 504). Ginger intake significantly reduced the episodes or severity of vomiting related to motion sickness compared to placebo or showed the same effect as several antiemetic drugs in two studies (n = 1,821). Conclusion: Our findings added evidence indicating that ginger powder supplements might improve the symptoms of nausea or vomiting related to early pregnancy or motion sickness without significant adverse events. © 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society. Source


Kim J.,Ewha Womans University | Kim J.Y.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology | Kwak J.S.,Biofood CRO Co. | Paek J.E.,Biofood CRO Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Although the functional ingredient has been evaluated based on scientific evidence by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), the levels of scientific evidence and consistency of the results might vary according to the emerging data. Therefore, a periodic re-evaluation may be needed in some functional ingredients. In this study, we re-evaluated the scientific evidence for the joint health of glucosamine as a functional ingredient in health functional food. Literature searches were conducted using Pubmed, Cochrane, KISS, and IBIDS databases with the search term of glucosamine in combination with osteoarthritis. The search was limited to human studies published in English, Korean and Japanese. Using the MFDS's evidence based evaluation system for scientific evaluation of health claims, 34 human studies were identified and reviewed in order to evaluate the strength of the evidence supporting the relation between glucosamine and joint health. Among the 34 studies, significant effects for joint health were reported in 28 studies, and their daily intake amount was 1.5 to 2 g. Eleven out of 34 studies were identified, excluding severe radiographic osteoarthritis, and ten from those eleven studies reported significant effects for joint health. Based on this systematic review, we concluded that there was possible evidence to support a relation between glucosamine intake and joint health. Source

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