Oslo, Norway
Oslo, Norway
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Skaven Seierstad K.,University of Oslo | Carlsen T.,University of Oslo | Saetre G.-P.,University of Oslo | Miettinen O.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2013

Gloeoporus taxicola is a widespread saprotrophic polypore that occurs on a variety of coniferous substrata in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study a multi-locus sequencing approach was used, on an extensive worldwide sample, to investigate the phylogeography of G. taxicola with respect to substratum affinity. DNA sequences from two nuclear and one haploid mitochondrial marker gave a complex phylogeographic pattern that roughly divided the specimens into two evolutionary lineages, but some admixed and highly heterozygous sequences appeared as well in the diplophase data. To increase the resolution, cloning was performed and haplophase sequences obtained from the nuclear markers. This revealed three main clusters of haplotypes, one representing a European lineage associated with pine, while the other two had more northern circumboreal distributions, occurring on a wide number of substrata. Some specimens contained two highly divergent haplophase sequences, probably reflecting hybridization and further introgression between the separate evolutionary lineages. Despite the saprobic status of the fungus, there was a strong indication of different host affinity between the two main evolutionary lineages. © 2012.

Carlsen T.,University of Oslo | Bendiksby M.,University of Oslo | Hofton T.H.,BioFokus | Reiso S.,BioFokus | And 4 more authors.
Lichenologist | Year: 2012

Fuscopannaria confusa is a rare lichen restricted to very humid localities in boreal forests. Two Fuscopannaria species, F. ahlneri and F. mediterranea, and Parmeliella parvula are morphologically problematic to distinguish from F. confusa. Our aim with the present study was to evaluate the taxonomic status of F. confusa and thereby clarify its conservation status in Norway. By phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus DNA sequences, we show that F. confusa is genetically well distinguished from F. ahlneri, F. mediterranea, and P. parvula. Fuscopannaria confusa should therefore be treated as a separate species. A species distribution modelling analysis indicates that F. confusa has a slightly continental but potentially wide geographic distribution in Norway. However, suitable localities are continuously being destroyed by clear-cut logging and hydroelectric power development. Because of the decline in suitable habitats, F. confusa should be regarded as highly threatened in Norway and listed as EN (endangered) at the national level. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2012.

Mysterud A.,University of Oslo | Aaserud R.,University of Oslo | Hansen L.O.,University of Oslo | Akra K.,Midt Troms museum | And 2 more authors.
Basic and Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

The literature on how plants respond to grazing and other disturbance factors have advanced greatly in recent decades, but studies of invertebrates are comparably few. We here quantify the effects of 3 levels of sheep grazing on selected invertebrates in an alpine ecosystem in Norway. We tested the hypothesis that invertebrates are more sensitive to grazing than plants (responding mainly at high density), and that primary consumers (herbivorous beetles) are more sensitive than predatory species (beetles and spiders). We captured 1218 specimens belonging to 44 beetle species and 6672 specimens belonging to 66 species of spiders. The community was dominated by few species: 5 beetle and 3 spider species made up 53.0% and 37.4% of the catch, respectively. At the local (plot) scale, most negative responses were only recorded at high sheep density, and invertebrates were thus not more responsive than the plant community. Two dominant herbivorous beetles responded to grazing while 3 dominant species of predatory beetles did not (one marginally). Spider species richness and frequency of occurrence of 2 dominant species were negatively affected by sheep grazing, suggesting variation between different taxonomic groups of predators. Further functional details than simple classification like herbivorous, predatory and litter-dwelling invertebrates seem to be required before a framework to predict responses to disturbance are robust. © 2010 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.

Hassel K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Appelgren L.,Ecofact | Blom H.H.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | Flynn K.M.,Miljofaglig Utredning | And 7 more authors.
Lindbergia | Year: 2014

Colura calyptrifolia is for the first time reported from Scandinavia, it was discovered in Femanger, Fusa municipality, Hordaland county. C. calyptrifolia was growing on an east to northeast facing cliff by a small brook. It was found mainly growing directly on the cliff, but small patches were also found on twigs of Lonicera periclymenum. © 2014 The Authors. This is an Open Access article.

Hoitomt T.,Biofokus | Olsen S.L.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2010

We describe changes in vascular plant richness on 13 high mountain summits based on a historical study performed approximately 40 years ago. A summit is defined as the uppermost 30 m of the mountain tops. The altitudes of the summits range from 1512 to 1814 m. Data from neighboring climatologic stations showed higher mean values for July temperature (0.7 °C) and January temperature (1.5 °C), and mean annual precipitation had increased from 714 to 764.7 mm (7.1) for the period from 1970 until 2009 compared with average data for the normal period (1961-1990). The total "top flora" had during this period increased by 19 taxa. On average, the increase in taxa richness was 18.9 ± 8.4 per summit, representing an average increase of 90.2. Woody species had an average upward movement of 7.3 m during the study period. The ongoing upward shift of common, ubiquitous alpine species has resulted in a floristic homogenization of the mountain summits, and thus increasing α-diversity was accompanied by decreasing β-diversity. The use of recorded plants as temperature indicators showed that average summer temperatures had increased by approximately 1.3 °C during this period. Several of the newly established species indicate that the climate has become more humid. We assume that the recorded floristic changes are the result of ongoing climatic changes. © 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

The genus Frullania includes two threatened Norwegian liverworts. F. bolanderi and F. oakesiana are categorised as vulnerable (VU) and endangered (EN) respectively, according to the 2010 Norwegian Red list for species. Investigations from the last 14 years, argue that both should be considered as species of national responsibility. In 2000 both species were known from a handful of localities. Fieldwork has revealed several new localities for F. bolanderi, known from a total of about 100 Norwegian localities. F. oakesiana has been found at only 7 new localities. Main substrate and habitat for both species are trunks of different deciduous trees in forests with high humidity, especially on trees along streams. Interestingly, the most dense populations of F. bolanderi are known from a few rather dry and exposed localities in mountain inner valleys of eastern Norway. Both species seem to prefer habitats with high continuity, biological diversity and high conservation value. However, contrasts in geographical and altitudinal distribution indicate pronounced differences in ecology between the two species.

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