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Mendez-Gomez H.R.,Instituto Cajal | Mendez-Gomez H.R.,CIBER ISCIII | Vergano-Vera E.,Instituto Cajal | Vergano-Vera E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2011

The T-box brain 1 (Tbr1) gene encodes a transcription factor necessary for the maintenance and/or differentiation of glutamatergic cells in the olfactory bulb (OB) and cortex, although its precise function in the development of glutamatergic neurons is not known. Furthermore, Tbr1 has not been reported to regulate the formation of glial cells. We show that Tbr1 is expressed during the initial stages in the generation of glutamatergic mitral neurons from dividing progenitors in the E12.5 mouse OB. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of Tbr1 in cultured embryonic and adult OB stem cells (OBSC) produces a marked increase in the number of TuJ1+ neurons (including VGLUT1+ glutamatergic and GABA+ neurons) and O4+ oligodendrocytes. Moreover, transduction of Tbr1 inhibits the production of GFAP+ astrocytes from both cultured OBSC and dividing progenitor cells in vivo. These results show that the expression of Tbr1 in neural stem and progenitor cells prevents them from following an astrocyte fate during OB development. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Tbr1 into neural stem cells could be useful to increase the production of neurons and oligodendrocytes in studies of neuroregeneration. © 2010.

Gagliani N.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Gagliani N.,Yale University | Magnani C.F.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Huber S.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | And 17 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

CD4+ type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells are induced in the periphery and have a pivotal role in promoting and maintaining tolerance. The absence of surface markers that uniquely identify Tr1 cells has limited their study and clinical applications. By gene expression profiling of human Tr1 cell clones, we identified the surface markers CD49b and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) as being stably and selectively coexpressed on mouse and human Tr1 cells. We showed the specificity of these markers in mouse models of intestinal inflammation and helminth infection and in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The coexpression of CD49b and LAG-3 enables the isolation of highly suppressive human Tr1 cells from in vitro anergized cultures and allows the tracking of Tr1 cells in the peripheral blood of subjects who developed tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The use of these markers makes it feasible to track Tr1 cells in vivo and purify Tr1 cells for cell therapy to induce or restore tolerance in subjects with immune-mediated diseases. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pombero A.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Bueno C.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Saglietti L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Rodenas M.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | And 3 more authors.
Development | Year: 2011

The majority of the cortical cholinergic innervation implicated in attention and memory originates in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band nucleus of the basal prosencephalon. Functional alterations in this system give rise to neuropsychiatric disorders as well as to the cognitive alterations described in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases. Despite the functional importance of these basal forebrain cholinergic neurons very little is known about their origin and development. Previous studies suggest that they originate in the medial ganglionic eminence of the telencephalic subpallium; however, our results identified Tbr1-expressing, reelin-positive neurons migrating from the ventral pallium to the subpallium that differentiate into cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain nuclei projecting to the cortex. Experiments with Tbr1 knockout mice, which lack ventropallial structures, confirmed the pallial origin of cholinergic neurons in Meynert and horizontal diagonal band nuclei. Also, we demonstrate that Fgf8 signaling in the telencephalic midline attracts these neurons from the pallium to follow a tangential migratory route towards the basal forebrain. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

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