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Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

Introduction: Women with pre-eclampsia (PE) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. This association might reflect an effect of pre-eclampsia on mechanisms inducing a higher risk of CVD or the presence of a group at risk. Materials and methods: The possibility that women with a magnesium deficiency might constitute a risk group was examined using published evidence form investigations on PE and CVD. Results: Available data strongly suggest that a magnesium deficiency is a major risk factor for both PE and for CVD disease later in life. Conclusions: Magnesium homeostasis studies in women with PE should be undertaken for validation purposes. The results suggest that women with PE should be given dietary counselling to decrease future risks of CVD. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Tercelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Salobir B.,University of Ljubljana | Zupancic M.,University of Ljubljana | Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease

Objectives: Fungi have been suspected of contributing to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. A previous intervention study demonstrated an improvement in the clinical condition in 15 out of 18 patients with a long-term history of sarcoidosis when antifungal medication was added to corticosteroids. The present study was performed to compare the effects of antifungal treatment with corticosteroid treatment in sarcoidosis.Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis were recruited. Corticosteroids were given to 39 subjects, corticosteroid+antifungal to 31, and antifungal only to 22 subjects. The effects of the treatments were evaluated at 6 months. X-ray scores were measured before and after treatment together with pulmonary diffusion capacity and two markers of sarcoidosis activity, that is, angiotensin-converting enzyme in serum (sACE) and chitotriosidase (CTO).Results: X-ray scores as well as sACE and CTO decreased significantly in all groups. The X-ray score decreased slightly more among subjects in the groups that received antifungal medication compared with corticosteroids only (p<0.001).Conclusion: The results suggest that antifungal treatment is as efficient as corticosteroid treatment against the granulomatous and inflammatory manifestations of sarcoidosis. This is probably because this treatment is directed towards the causative agent. Additional studies are required to define the phenotype, where the antifungal treatment was not efficient (4/22) and to perform long-term follow up to determine the risk of recurrence. © The Author(s), 2011. Source

Adhikari A.,University of Cincinnati | Reponen T.,University of Cincinnati | Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center
Indoor Air

Fungal exposure may induce respiratory symptoms. The causative agents are compounds in the fungal cell wall. Fragments of microbes may be present in air samples but are not measurable using conventional spore counting or by the determination of viable organisms. This study assesses the proportion of fungal cell biomass and endotoxin in different particle size fractions in air samples from homes. Air samples were collected from 15 homes using a cyclone sampler, collecting particles in three aerodynamic size fractions: <1.0, 1.0-1.8, and >1.8 μm. N-Acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) was determined as a marker of fungal cell biomass. Endotoxin was determined using the Limulus amebocyte lysate method. NAHA and endotoxin in the size range <1.0 μm comprised up to 63% (mean 22.7%) and 96.3% (mean 22.6%) of the total concentrations, respectively. There were significant relationships between the amounts of NAHA and endotoxin in the total amount and in the size fraction >1.8 μm but not in the smaller fractions. The results demonstrate significant amounts of fungal cell biomass and endotoxin in particles <1.0 μm. Homes with reported mold damage had a lower concentration of NAHA in particles <1.0 μm than homes without mold damage. To assess airborne exposure for diagnostic and preventive purposes, measurement techniques that include this fraction should be considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S232 April 2013 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00799.x Original Article Original Articles © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Tercelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Salobir B.,University of Ljubljana | Zupancic M.,University of Ljubljana | Wraber B.,University of Ljubljana | Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center

Background and objective Previous studies have demonstrated increases of inflammatory mediators in sarcoidosis while epidemiological studies have also demonstrated an association with increased fungi exposure. This study measured the level of β-glucan in the lungs and of inflammatory mediators in serum, and correlated both with the extent of pulmonary granuloma infiltration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 98 patients with sarcoidosis and 26 controls. β-glucan, a cell wall constituent of fungi, was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage. Inflammatory mediator levels were determined in serum. The extent of granuloma infiltration was estimated on the chest X-ray. Exposure to fungi at home was determined by taking air samples in bedrooms and analysing for the presence of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Results Significantly, higher levels of β-glucan were found in broncho-alveolar lavage in subjects with sarcoidosis as compared with controls. There were significant positive relationships between the extent of granuloma infiltration and the levels of the different inflammatory mediators, except for interleukin-10. Domestic fungal exposure was higher among subjects with sarcoidosis. Conclusions This is the first time that a specific agent, previously suspected to be related to the risk of sarcoidosis, has been detected in the lung of subjects with sarcoidosis and related to the levels of inflammatory mediators and the degree of home exposure to fungi. The results suggest that exposure to fungi should be explored when investigating patients with sarcoidosis. This study demonstrated β-glucan - a fungal cell wall agent - in the lungs of sarcoidosis patients. It also confirmed a positive relationship between β-glucan and domestic fungi exposure. Lung granuloma infiltration correlated inflammatory cytokines except IL-10, an anti-granuloma cytokine. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source

Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center
Pregnancy Hypertension

Magnesium is an important cation present in more than 300 enzymes in the body. This review evaluates the information on magnesium and pregnancy. In normal pregnancies Mg responsive genes are upregulated, suggesting Mg deficiency. Blood pressure increase is related to the urinary excretion of Mg. In pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia the Mg homeostasis is different from normal pregnancies. Supplementation with Mg has shown beneficial effects on high blood pressure and infant conditions in some studies. Although several studies show important relationships between Mg homeostasis and pregnancy, particularly those with pre-eclampsia, further studies are needed to assess the relationship and formulate requirements for intervention programmes. © 2014 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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