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Golubkina N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Skriabin K.,Bioengineering Center
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010

Although ordinary and genetically modified potatoes stable to Colorado beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, are known to possess very small differences in chemical composition, nothing is known about selenium (Se) accumulation by these plants. Using a fluorimetric method of analysis, we have demonstrated extremely high Se accumulation in leaves of CPB-resistant potatoes (more than 1 mg kg -1 dry weight) and moderate accumulation levels of Se in tubers (1.39 times more than in ordinary plants). Leaves of genetically modified potatoes are shown to possess a decreased concentration of ascorbic acid (1.5 times less than controls) and slightly elevated levels of nitrates. The possibility of Se participation in the protection of genetically modified potatoes against CPB is discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ushakova N.A.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Abramov V.M.,Institute of Immunological Engineering | Khlebnikov V.S.,Institute of Immunological Engineering | Semenov A.M.,Moscow State University | And 8 more authors.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins | Year: 2012

The biofilm formation took place in 48 h within the solid substrate cultivation of Lactobacillus plantarum 8-RA-3 strain on the wheat bran saturated with the MRS medium. The drying of the bran fermented by lactobacilli resulted in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFU) from 23. 0 × 10 8 to 6. 9 × 10 5 CFU/g in daily samples and to less than 10 4 CFU/g in 2- and 3-day samples. However, according to the fluorescence-based live/dead assay data, more than 40 % of the non-cultured bacteria were viable. As a result of mice kept on a diet with the introduction of bran fermented by Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 for 72 h into the fodder, a recovery of normal level of intestinal lactobacilli, inhibited by administration of antibiotic was noted. The strain genetically identical to the Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 was isolated from the feces of these mice. The results indicate that solid substrate cultivated Lact. plantarum 8-RA-3 strain formed a biofilm. Once dried and transferred into a non-cultured state, biofilm cells retained its viability and biological activity. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Goryunova S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Chikida N.N.,All Russian Institute of Plant Industry | Kochieva E.Z.,Bioengineering Center
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2010

RAPD analysis was used to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species with the U genome. In total, 115 DNA samples of eight polyploid species containing the U genome and the diploid species Ae. umbellulata (U) were examined. Substantial interspecific polymorphism was observed for the majority of the polyploid species with the U genome (interspecific differences, 0. 01-0,2; proportion of polymorphic loci, 56. 6-88. 2%). Aegilops triuncialis was identified as the only alloploid species with low interspecific polymorphism (interspecific differences, 0-0. 01, P = 50%) in the U-genome group. The U-genome Aegilops species proved to be separated from other species of the genus. The phylogenetic relationships were established for the U-genome species. The greatest separation within the U-genome group was observed for the US-genome species Ae. kotschyi and Ae. variabilis. The tetraploid species Ae. triaristata and Ae. columnaris, which had the UX genome, and the hexaploid species Ae. recta (UXN) were found to be related to each other and separate from the UM-genome species. A similarity was observed between the UM-genome species Ae. ovata and Ae. biuncialis, which had the UM genome, and the ancestral diploid U-genome species Ae. umbellulata. The UC-genome species Ae. triuncialis was rather separate and slightly similar to the UX-genome species. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Goryunova S.V.,Wageningen University | Goryunova S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Salentijn E.M.J.,Wageningen University | Chikida N.N.,All Russian Institute of Plant Industry | And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. Results: We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L.) representing eight different genomes: A§ssup§m§esup§, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. Conclusions: We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two rounds of duplication of the locus. © 2012 Goryunova et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cuiffi J.,Bioengineering Center | Soong R.,Draper Laboratory | Manolakos S.,Bioengineering Center | Mohapatra S.,University of South Florida | Larson D.,Draper Laboratory
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2010

We present a review of current implementations of nanohole array sensor technology and discuss future trends for this technique applied to multiplexed, label-free protein binding assays. Nanohole array techniques are similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques in that local refractive index changes at the sensor surface, correlated to protein binding events, are probed and detected optically. Nanohole array sensing differs by use of a transmission based mode of optical detection, extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) that eliminates the need for prism coupling to the surface and provides high spatial and temporal resolution for chip-based assays. This enables nanohole array sensor technology to combine the real time label-free analysis of SPR with the multiplexed assay format of protein microarrays. Various implementations and configurations of nanohole array sensing have been demonstrated, but the use of this technology for specific research or commercial applications has yet to be realized. In this review, we discuss the potential applications of nanohole sensor array technology and the impact of that each application has on nanohole array sensor, instrument and assay design. A specific example presented is a multiplexed biomarker assay for metastatic melanoma, which focuses on biomarker specificity in human serum and ultimate levels of detection. This example demonstrates strategies for chip layout and the integration of microfluidic channels to take advantage of the high spatial resolution achievable with this technique. Finally, we evaluate the potential of nanohole array sensor technology against current trends in SPR and protein micro-arrays, providing direction towards development of this tool to fill unmet needs in protein analysis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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