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Neustift bei Güssing, Austria

Kern S.,Vienna University of Technology | Halwachs M.,Bioenergy2020 GmbH | Kampichler G.,Energieversorgung Niederosterreich EVN AG | Pfeifer C.,Vienna University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

The idea of co-firing biomass in an already existing coal-fired power plant could play a major contribution in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Huge amounts of unused biomass in terms of agricultural residues such as straw, which is a cheap and local feedstock, are often available. But due to the high amount of corrosive ash elements (K, Cl, etc.), the residues are usually not suitable for co-firing in a thermal power plant. Therefore, the feedstock is converted by low temperature pyrolysis into gaseous pyrolysis products and charcoal. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant located next to a coal-fired power plant near Vienna was set up in 2008. For the process, an externally heated rotary kiln reactor with a design fuel power of 3 MW is used which can handle about 0.6-0.8 t/h straw. The aim is to investigate the fundamentals for scale-up to the desired size for co-firing in a coal-fired power plant. In addition to the desired fuel for the process, which is wheat straw, a testing series for DDGS was also performed. The high amount of pyrolysis oil in the gas had positive effects on the heating value of the pyrolysis gas. Chemical efficiencies of this pyrolysis pilot plant of up to 67% for pyrolysis temperatures between 450°C and 600°C can be reached. The focus of this work is set on the pyrolysis products and their behavior at different pyrolysis temperatures as well as the performance of the pyrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wilk V.,Bioenergy2020 GmbH | Schmid J.C.,Vienna University of Technology | Hofbauer H.,Vienna University of Technology
Biomass and Bioenergy

An in-bed and an on-bed feeding system are implemented in a dual fluidized bed gasifier in order to investigate the influence of the fuel feeding position on the gasification process. Two bed materials, fresh and used olivine, are used because of their varying catalytic activity. The comparison of in-bed and on-bed feeding of wood pellets shows that in-bed feeding is more favorable, because lower tar concentrations are achieved and the gas composition is closer to water-gas shift equilibrium. Better mixing of bed material and fuel particles occurs with in-bed feeding. The residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer in the case of in-bed feeding, and therefore better performance of the gasifier is achieved. Sufficient residence time of the fuel in the bubbling bed is important when a less active bed material is used. More active bed material is capable of compensating for the shorter residence time of the gas phase in contact with bed material during on-bed feeding. •Experimental investigation of in-bed and on-bed feeding.•Two bed materials (catalytic activity) and two fuels (devolatilization behavior).•In-bed feeding more favorable due to lower tar concentration and better gas quality.•Residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer during in-bed feeding.•More active bed material compensates for shorter residence time of the gas phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Neubauer R.,University of Graz | Weinlaender C.,University of Graz | Kienzl N.,Bioenergy2020 GmbH | Schroettner H.,University of Graz | Hochenauer C.,University of Graz
Energy and Fuels

Adsorptive on-board desulfurization units require a high desulfurization and regeneration performance for a wide range of fuels to keep them small and ensure long maintenance intervals. A novel thermal regeneration strategy was investigated in this work, fulfilling all requirements for in situ on-board regeneration. In this strategy, a temperature-controlled flow rate (TCFR) of air was used to control the temperature inside the adsorber. With this dynamic approach, the regeneration time was reduced significantly in comparison to other thermal regeneration strategies. The novel regeneration strategy was tested using Ag-Al2O3 as an adsorbent to desulfurize a benzothiophen (BT)-enriched road diesel (300 ppmw of total sulfur). A commercial diesel containing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was used to evaluate the fuel flexibility regarding desulfurization and regeneration performance. In the case of 6.63 wt % FAME and 300 ppmw of sulfur, the breakthrough adsorption capacity of sulfur decreased from 1.04 to 0.17 mg/g. In TCFR regeneration experiments, the breakthrough adsorption capacity was restored to over 94% in the case of both fuels. Thereby, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the regenerated adsorbent decreased by only 1.5%, and negligible carbon deposits were detected. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Wilk V.,Bioenergy2020 GmbH | Hofbauer H.,Vienna University of Technology

During gasification, fuel nitrogen is converted into gaseous species, such as NH3, HCN and others. Several materials are gasified in the dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant in order to assess the conversion of fuel nitrogen. The fuels tested in this study are different kinds of waste wood, bark and plastic residues. The nitrogen content of these materials ranges from 0.05 to 2.70 wt.-%. Detailed measurements of NH3, N2, HCN, NO and nitrogenous tars are carried out during the test runs. It is found that the vast majority of nitrogen is present in the form of NH3. There is a linear relationship with high accuracy between fuel nitrogen and NH 3 in the producer gas. The nitrogen balance of the dual fluidized bed gasification system shows the distribution of nitrogen in the two coupled reactors of the gasification system. It is assessed that nitrogen conversion occurs almost exclusively in the gasification reactor. Only minor amounts of nitrogen are found in the char, which is transported to the combustion reactor and is converted to NO there. This result provides important information for the gas cleaning requirements when nitrogen-rich fuels are gasified. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wilk V.,Bioenergy2020 GmbH | Hofbauer H.,Vienna University of Technology

Steam gasification of plastic materials was studied in a dual fluidized bed gasification pilot plant (DFB). Several types of plastics, which are available in large amounts in waste streams, were investigated: PE, PP, and mixtures of PE + PS, PE + PET and PE + PP. It was found that the product gas from PE was rich in CH4 and C2H4 and had a LCV of 25 MJ/N m 3. About 22% of PE was converted to the monomer C2H 4. Different mixtures of PE with other polymers showed, that the concentrations of CH4 and C2H4 increased with an increasing proportion of PE and that they were the main decomposition products of PE. The product gas from pure PP contained more CH4 and less C2H4 compared to the product gas from PE. The polymer mixtures behaved differently from the pure substances. Significantly more H2 and CO were generated from PE + PP and PE + PS. It can be assumed that the decomposition products of the two polymers in the mixture interacted strongly and alternately influenced the gasification process. More water was converted, so the gas production increased. The reforming reactions were enhanced and yielded H2 and CO at the expense of CH4 and C2H4. The mixture of PE + PET differed from the other polymers because of the high oxygen content of PET. Thus, 28% of CO2 were measured in the product gas. By contrast, CO2 was in the range of 8%, when oxygen-free polymers were gasified and CO2 was only produced from reactions with steam. Gasification of polymers resulted in significantly high tar loads in the product gas in the range of 100 g/N m 3. The GCMS analysis of tars showed that tars from polymers mainly consisted of PAH and aro-matics. Naphthalene was the most important tar compound. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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