Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2011-2 | Award Amount: 2.02M | Year: 2012
The utilisation of renewable energy sources is a considerable contribution to the EU 2020 targets, and the utilisation of solid biomass for heat production is of great relevance in this regard. The market for solid biofuels is growing rapidly, and the demand for raw materials is increasing. Consequently it is aimed at extending the raw material basis for biofuel production covering also wooden materials of lower quality as well as agricultural raw materials and residues, which often show unfavourable ash melting properties. The ash fusion test is the only standardised method currently available to assess the ash melting behaviour of solid biomass, but the significance of this test is frequently criticised, in particular the applicability for low-quality wood or non-wooden biomass. Thus a respective normative regulation has not been included in the EN 14961-2, which is considered a major drawback for future development of the high quality end consumer market for wood pellets. A number of alternative test methods have been developed to predict the ash melting properties of biomass fuels, but predictions and test results have scarcely been evaluated regarding their significance with regard to the practical performance of the fuels during combustion. The objectives of the AshMelT project are to - Develop a test method for the assessment of the ash melting characteristics of solid biofuels - Specify ash melting classes for solid biofuels - Work out a proposal for a European standard for the developed test method - Develop a proposal for the implementation of the developed procedure as a testing reference in the ENplus wood pellets label To meet the above specified objectives laboratory experiments and combustion experiments are conducted by RTD institutions from all over Europe. Results are validated by external laboratories in a Round Robin test and by combustion tests conducted by RTD performers and boiler manufacturers.
Kirnbauer F.,Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH |
Hofbauer H.,Vienna University of Technology
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2011
Bed material coating in fluidized biomass combustion plants is a precursor for bed agglomeration. While bed agglomeration is a well-described problem in connection with biomass combustion plants, the literature on bed agglomeration or bed material coating in gasification plants is sparse. Recently developed biomass gasification plants face similar ash-related problems, but inorganic matter is also linked to their catalytic activity to reduce the tar concentration in the product gas. This paper summarizes recent ash-related research activities at a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant located in Güssing, Austria. The used fuel is forestry residues; the bed material is olivine. The setup of inorganic flows and loops is described. Bed material analyses were carried out and presented, such as X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analyses show the building of two calcium-rich layers around the bed particles. The inner layer is homogeneous, composed mainly of calcium and silicate, while the outer layer has a similar composition to the fly ash of the plant. Analyses of the crystal structure of the used bed material show the formation of calcium silicates that were not detected in the fresh bed material. This has consequences on the performance of the plant concerning the catalytic activity of the bed material and the tendency for fouling in the plant. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source
Ehrig R.,Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH |
Behrendt F.,TU Berlin
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
In this paper the energy and carbon footprints of pellet imports from Australia, West Canada, and Russia for co-firing in Europe are investigated. Their ecologic and economic performances are proven by applying the Belgian and UK co-firing subsidy systems, which require dedicated sustainability evaluations. Based on the modelling of different subsidy schemes and price scenarios, the present paper identifies favourable conditions for the use of biomass co-firing in Germany and Austria, which currently do not have dedicated co-firing incentives. The present paper shows that under present conditions, co-firing has a narrow financial gap to coal with -3 to 4€ Cent/kWhel and has low CO2 mitigation costs compared to other renewables. Moreover, it is shown that co-firing is one of the most cost-attractive options to reach the EU-2020 targets. For policy makers, the support of co-firing is found to be very efficient in terms of cost-benefit ratio. It is proven that the co-firing subsidy schemes might direct supply chain decisions towards options with low energy and carbon impacts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2011-2 | Award Amount: 4.01M | Year: 2012
Isolated incidents due to increased, toxic emissions in pellet storages have aroused great relevance and urgency on operational and customer safety in wood pellet supply chains. Reportedly two cases of death have occurred in large size vessels for ocean transportation and in harbour facilities. Another three incidents were reported in end-users storage rooms, the last of which resulted in the death of a German engineer. Furthermore, measurements in pellet storages show significantly increased CO concentrations for a relevant number of storages. Until now a definitive cause for increased CO concentration could not be found. Within this project the different approaches and results on safety in pellet supply chains are linked with each other and integrated to a supranational scope. This is of great importance as pellet markets are no longer isolated, but increasingly grow to international resource flows. In this regard, decisive parameters like the amount of off-gasses and the potential for self-heating related to the time from pellet production to end use as well as the raw material composition of pellets resulting from their origin have to be investigated within international scope. The proposed project aims to answer the question, where and under which conditions off-gassing and self-heating from biomass pellets occurs and what measures can be undertaken to reduce these risks. In turn, this project will end out into a draft for setting an international standard on safety measures and inspection methods along the whole pellets supply chain (e.g. by developing Material Safety Data Sheets for wood pellets). This safety issue is decisive for the further extension of pellets markets and thereby reflects high relevance for all enterprises in the pellet utilisation chain.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.3.7.2 | Award Amount: 579.15K | Year: 2013
Biofuels have a key role in the energy and climate strategy of the EU. So far they are the only renewable energy carrier which contributes significantly to the energy demand of the transport sector. In the medium term this will continue at least for sectors such as heavy duty road transport and aviation. Since 2006, the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP) supports the development of cost-competitive world-class biofuels value chains and the acceleration of their sustainable deployment in the EU. The objective of the EBTP-SABS project is to provide support to all activities of EBTP which are of interest to the biofuels community as a whole and the general public. This includes information about technological, market, political, regulatory and financial developments and deployment activities such as the set-up, commissioning and operation of pilot and demonstration facilities and surrounding research. A main focus will be to support the European Industrial Bioenergy Initiative (EIBI) and facilitate the implementation and possible update of the EBTP Strategic Research Agenda. EBTP-SABS will motivate discussion and interaction between various groups of stakeholders and the working groups of EBTP on hot topics relating to the accelerated deployment of the most promising value chains for advanced biofuels. Informing the biofuels debate with scientifically correct, unbiased information will serve all biofuel stakeholders. The information will be provided at several levels of detail: general information to support those entering the biofuels community as well as the general public; more detailed information to support research or deployment activities; and links to research projects, demonstration facilities, external reports, stakeholders and training courses to support those who actively seek to implement biofuels technologies. Key instruments to achieve this aim will be the EBTP website, factsheets, reports, newsletters and networking events at different scales.