BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH

Germany

BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH

Germany
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Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Rodemann B.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Bandte M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Buttner C.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Knowledge of fate and behavior of plant pathogens in the biogas production chain is limited and hampers the estimation and evaluation of the potential phytosanitary risk if digestate is spread on arable land as a fertilizer. Therefore, simulation is an appropriate tool to demonstrate the effects which influence the steady state of pathogen infected plant material in both digesters and digestate. Simple approaches of kinetics of inactivation and mass balances of infected material were carried out considering single-step as well as two-step digestion. The simulation revealed a very fast to fast reduction of infected material after a singular feeding, reaching a cutback to less than 1% of input within 4 days even for D90-values of 68h. Steady state mass balances below input rate could be calculated with D90-values of less than 2h at a continuous hourly feeding. At higher D90-values steady state mass balances exceed the input rate but are still clearly below the sum of input mass. Dilution further decreases mass balances to values 10-5 to 10-6Mgm-3 for first-step digestion and 10-8 to 10-9 for second-step. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Julius Kuhn Institute, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering, BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH and Humboldt University of Berlin
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2014

Knowledge of fate and behavior of plant pathogens in the biogas production chain is limited and hampers the estimation and evaluation of the potential phytosanitary risk if digestate is spread on arable land as a fertilizer. Therefore, simulation is an appropriate tool to demonstrate the effects which influence the steady state of pathogen infected plant material in both digesters and digestate. Simple approaches of kinetics of inactivation and mass balances of infected material were carried out considering single-step as well as two-step digestion. The simulation revealed a very fast to fast reduction of infected material after a singular feeding, reaching a cutback to less than 1% of input within 4 days even for D90-values of 68h. Steady state mass balances below input rate could be calculated with D90-values of less than 2h at a continuous hourly feeding. At higher D90-values steady state mass balances exceed the input rate but are still clearly below the sum of input mass. Dilution further decreases mass balances to values 10(-5) to 10(-6)Mgm(-3) for first-step digestion and 10(-8) to 10(-9) for second-step.


Bensmann A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bensmann A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Hanke-Rauschenbach R.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems | Hanke-Rauschenbach R.,Leibniz University of Hanover | And 10 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

With today's growing focus on on-demand energy production, the dynamic operation of biogas plants is becoming more and more important. Detecting unacceptable load changes and so preventing process failures is vital. In the present contribution, we propose an operating scheme that includes the detection of disturbances and intervention. This is then evaluated systematically with the help of a mathematical model for step changes in the organic loading rate. We summarize the qualitative results for each diagnosis variable in an operation diagram, enabling an intuitive, comprehensive comparison. Of the diagnosis variables analyzed, we find that the most promising for identifying incipient process failures in biogas plants are the volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity ratio (VFA/TA), followed by the ratio of methane to carbon dioxide γ in the biogas. In addition, the combination of the online measured variables pH value and gas composition can reveal disturbances early on in a wide range of different conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Froschle B.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Lebuhn M.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture | Messelhausse U.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The increasing number of agricultural biogas plants and higher amounts of digestate spread on agricultural land arouse a considerable interest in the hygiene situation of digested products. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on sanitation during anaerobic digestion and the hygienic status of digestate concerning a multitude of pathogens potentially compromising the health of humans, animals and plants. Physical, chemical and biological parameters influencing the efficiency of sanitation in anaerobic digestion are considered. The degree of germ reduction depends particularly on the resistance of the pathogen of concern, the processing conditions, the feedstock composition and the diligence of the operation management. Most scientific studies facing sanitation in biogas plants have provided data ascertaining reduction of pathogens by the biogas process. Some pathogens, however, are able to persist virtually unaffected due to the ability to build resistant permanent forms. As compared to the feedstock, the sanitary status of the digestate is thus improved or in the worst case, the sanitary quality remains almost unchanged. According to this, the spreading of digestate on agricultural area in accordance to current rules and best practice recommendations is considered to impose no additional risk for the health of humans, animals and plants. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Meyer-Aurich A.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Schattauer A.,Ingenieurburo Prof. Dr. Jorg Oldenburg | Hellebrand H.J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Klauss H.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

The production of biogas as a renewable resource has emerged rapidly in Germany and other countries with the expectation to substantially mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the cultivation of energy crops or leakage at biogas plants may counteract the mitigation effect of biogas use. This study analyzes the GHG mitigation potential of using biogas based on cattle slurry and corn (Zea mays L.) to produce electrical and thermal energy. The impact of the feedstock chosen, the storage facilities, thermal energy use, and land use change were analyzed by evaluating different scenarios. A special focus is provided with an uncertainty analysis, where the impact of uncertainty of 14 parameters on the variability of the mitigation potential was analyzed with Monte-Carlo simulations.The production of biogas from agricultural resources as an energy source for electrical energy may substantially contribute to the mitigation of GHG emissions by offsetting emissions from fossil resources and by reducing emissions from the storage of animal manure. In the scenarios analyzed GHG emissions calculated with default values were between 0.10 and 0.40 kg CO2-eq/kWhel, which is 22%-75% less than the GHG emissions caused by the present energy mix in Germany. The analysis demonstrates the variability of the mitigation effect due to uncertainties with technical and environmental processes, which are difficult to control. Uncertainties due to fertilizer induced N2O emissions from the soil had the biggest impact on the mitigation effect of biogas use when the digestate is stored gas-tight. Otherwise, the uncertainty of emissions from the digestate dominates the variability of GHG emissions of the whole process. Moderate effects are caused by the biogas yield from feedstock, methane leakage, the electrical efficiency of the combined heat and power unit (CHP), and nitrate leaching. A minor impact can be expected from fertilizer volatilization and from the power consumption of the biogas plant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Schattauer A.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Abdoun E.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Weiland P.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

Ten biogas plants across Europe were investigated for the concentrations of trace elements in their digestates. Many of these trace elements are important micro nutrients and act as microbial agents responsible for the anaerobic digestion of organic material. Great variations in concentrations from biogas plant to biogas plant were found covering a range of 1-2 orders of magnitude. No deficit of nutrients was detected in any of the biogas plants tested, but those plants with high inputs of energy crops and manure had lower values. Also biogas plants feeding high amounts of glycerol in addition to their agricultural feedstock generally showed low concentrations of micro nutrients. The highest concentrations of nutrients were detected at biogas plants fed by bleaching earth. Biogas plants fed with wastes like blood, kitchen and food waste also revealed higher concentrations of micro nutrients. © 2010 IAgrE.


Bandte M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Schleusner Y.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Buttner C.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2013

Feedstock of anaerobic digestion infected with phytopathogens could enhance the risk of spreading those pathogens to uninfested field through digestate. The viability of Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia solani was investigated in anaerobic digestion experiments using infected plant material of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. altissima), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Results from lab-scale reactors were confirmed in full-scale biogas plants. Anaerobic digestion under mesophilic conditions (35-42 °C) reduced most of the phytopathogens of feedstocks investigated. Thus, S. sclerotiorum and R. solani lost their viability within 6 h. In the case of sorghum, however, Fusarium spp. infected feedstock required a maximum of 138 h for sanitation. Thus, the risk of spreading plant pathogens with the digestate can only be decreased when the feedstock would undergo an additional treatment before anaerobic digestion or of the resulting digestate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Blokhina Y.N.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Prochnow A.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Luckhaus C.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Landscape management grass is generally harvested late, resulting in unfavorable composition for many utilization purposes. This study explores various technical concepts of biogas production and their economic viability. The Lower Oder Valley National Park is taken here as an example. This National Park in North-East Germany comprises large grassland areas with conservation-related restrictions on management. The concepts of biogas production and use considered are: (1) decentralized digestion and use of biogas at five autonomous combined heat and power (CHP) units, (2) decentralized digestion and delivery of the biogas to a centralized CHP unit, (3) decentralized digestion, upgrading of the biogas and feeding into the natural gas grid, and (4) one central biogas plant with centralized CHP unit. Annual costs and revenues of biogas production were calculated for each alternative. Biogas production from landscape management grass meets the conservational demands of late cutting periods and under certain circumstances shows a profit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Quinones T.S.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Budde J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2011

Continuous bio-methanization of different feedstocks (rye grain silage, maize silage, feed residue (mix of silages), solid cattle manure, and grass silage) was investigated in a long-term laboratory-scale experiment with and without enzyme application. Ten-liter reactors were operated simultaneously in a two-step digestion mode for the continuous production of biogas from different feedstocks over 354 days. One set of reactors was operated as main digester, while the second set was used for the second step. The daily input of feedstock was increased from an organic loading rate of 1 to 3 kg ODM·m -3·d-1. All digesters were run under stable conditions, indicated by the ratio of volatile fatty acids to the total inorganic carbon, ranging around 0.2 in the first step and 0.15 in the second step. The hydraulic retention time was maintained between 80 and 90 days during the experiment. The application of enzymes was able to enhance biogas production by 10-15% and increase the methane content of biogas by an increment of 5-10% for the investigated materials except for feed residue. The increase in biogas yields was also reflected in the change in the ratios of heating values of the methane produced to the dry materials. These ratios ranged between 0.43 and 0.71 for the untreated feedstock, increasing to 0.44-0.88 after enzyme application. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Quinones T.S.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Plochl M.,BioenergieBeratungBornim GmbH | Budde J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Heiermann M.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2012

The hydrolysis of lignocellulose is assumed to be the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic fermentation process. A fungal hydrolytic enzyme mixture was used to assess the enzymatic impact on different feedstocks for biogas production. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of rye grain silage, maize silage, grass silage, feed residues and solid cattle manure were determined in lab-scale experiments. Finally, the effects of enhanced hydrolysis on anaerobic digestion were investigated in batch digestion tests. Enzyme treatment of substrate showed Michaelis-Menten-like behavior and reached maximum values after 3 hours for reduced sugars as a product of hydrolysis. Methane production potential was determined for specific feedstock mixtures without enzyme, with inactivated enzyme and with active enzyme (with and without buffer). The results obtained show a clear increase in methane production after enzyme application for solid cattle manure (165 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1 to 340 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1), grass silage (307 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1 to 388 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1; enzyme plus buffer), feed residue (303 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1 to 467 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1), maize silage (370 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1 to 480 L N CH 4·kg ODM -1 and a lower increase for rye grain silage (355 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1 to 413 L N CH 4·kg ODH -1). The ratios of heating values from methane yields to heating values from the dry materials ranged between 0.3 and 0.7 for the untreated feedstock and increased to levels between 0.6 and 0.9 after the different forms of enzyme application.

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