Biodynamic Research Corporation

San Antonio, TX, United States

Biodynamic Research Corporation

San Antonio, TX, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Watson R.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Wirth J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

This paper reports on seventy additional tests conducted using a mechanical device described by Bonugli et al. [4]. The method utilized quasi-static loading of bumper systems and other vehicle components to measure their force-deflection properties. Corridors on the force-deflection plots, for various vehicle combinations, were determined in order to define the system stiffness of the combined vehicle components. Loading path and peak force measurements can then be used to evaluate the impact severity for low speed collisions in terms of delta-v and acceleration. The additional tests refine the stiffness corridors, previously published, which cover a wide range of vehicle types and impact configurations. The compression phase of a low speed collision can be modeled as a spring that is defined by the force-deflection corridors. This is followed by a linear rebound phase based on published restitution values [1,5]. Load cell barrier data obtained through NHTSA's Load Cell Analysis toolbox was compared with the stiffness corridors from the quasi-static loading and incorporated into a novel method for assessing low speed collisions. This method allows the reconstructionist to use vehicle specific stiffness properties from barrier testing in order to further refine the analysis. The NHTSA based stiffness values are derived from the initial or "toe" region of the vehicle's force-deflection plot. When used in series with the stiffness corridors they can be used to approximate the spring constant of the system. © 2017 SAE International.


Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Cormier J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Reilly M.,Ohio State University | Reinhart L.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and typical' roadway surfaces. Motorcycle helmet impacts into asphalt and concrete surfaces were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impact testing. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate an off-centered oblique collision. Helmeted Hybrid III ATD head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. The study was limited to a single helmet model and impact angle (30 degrees). Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and concrete in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, was observed when asphalt and concrete were used as the impact surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate typical' roadway surfaces; however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting concrete, a commonly used roadway material, is recommended as a best-fit material to simulate the surface of a roadway for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. © 2017 SAE International.


Sherwood D.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Sponsel W.E.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Lund B.J.,U.S. Army | Gray W.,University of Texas at San Antonio | And 7 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014

Purpose. We qualitatively describe the anatomic features of primary blast ocular injury observed using a postmortem porcine eye model. Porcine eyes were exposed to various levels of blast energy to determine the optimal conditions for future testing. Methods. We studied 53 enucleated porcine eyes: 13 controls and 40 exposed to a range of primary blast energy levels. Eyes were preassessed with B-scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) ultrasonography, photographed, mounted in gelatin within acrylic orbits, and monitored with high-speed videography during blast-tube impulse exposure. Postimpact photography, ultrasonography, and histopathology were performed, and ocular damage was assessed. Results. Evidence for primary blast injury was obtained. While some of the same damage was observed in the control eyes, the incidence and severity of this damage in exposed eyes increased with impulse and peak pressure, suggesting that primary blast exacerbated these injuries. Common findings included angle recession, internal scleral delamination, cyclodialysis, peripheral chorioretinal detachments, and radial peripapillary retinal detachments. No full-thickness openings of the eyewall were observed in any of the eyes tested. Scleral damage demonstrated the strongest associative tendency for increasing likelihood of injury with increased overpressure. Conclusions. These data provide evidence that primary blast alone (in the absence of particle impact) can produce clinically relevant ocular damage in a postmortem model. The blast parameters derived from this study are being used currently in an in vivo model. We also propose a new Cumulative Injury Score indicating the clinical relevance of observed injuries. © 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Wiechel J.F.,S E A Ltd | Wiechel J.F.,Ohio State University | Scott W.R.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

A series of tip-over and off-the-dock impact tests were performed with stand-up forklifts in order to investigate the potential for injury to the operator of a forklift in these types of accidents when the forklift is equipped with an operator's compartment door. One Crown Equipment Company RR Model and one RC Model stand-up forklift were used in the impact tests. The only modification to the forklifts for the tests was the placement of a door on the entrance to the operator's compartment. A Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was placed in the operator's compartment as a human surrogate. During each test, head accelerations, chest accelerations, neck loads and lumbar loads were measured on the ATD. The motion of the forklift and the ATD were filmed with video and highspeed cameras. Results from the impact tests indicate that there is a high risk of head injury in a right side tip-over accident and a high risk of head injury and neck injury in a left side tip-over accident. There is a high risk of a head injury, neck injury and thoracic injury in off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents. In an offthe- dock forks-leading accident there is a high risk of arm/shoulder injury, head injury, and neck injury. In both tipover and off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents there is a high probability of an entrapment injury under the overhead guard on the forklift. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Cormier J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Manoogian S.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bisplinghoff J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Rowson S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2011

The current understanding of the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact is limited. Previous studies have utilized vastly different methods, which limits the use of statistical analyses to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone. The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact. Acoustic emission sensors were used to provide a noncensored measure of the frontal bone tolerance and were essential due to the increase in impactor force after fracture onset. In this study, risk functions for fracture were developed using parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that a 50% risk of frontal bone fracture occurs at a force between 1885 N and 2405 N. Subjects that were found to have a frontal sinus present within the impacted region had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a fracture. There was no association between subject age and fracture force. The results of the current study suggest that utilizing peak force as an estimate of fracture tolerance will overestimate the force necessary to create a frontal bone fracture. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Cormier J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
Journal of biomechanical engineering | Year: 2011

The current understanding of the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact is limited. Previous studies have utilized vastly different methods, which limits the use of statistical analyses to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone. The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact. Acoustic emission sensors were used to provide a noncensored measure of the frontal bone tolerance and were essential due to the increase in impactor force after fracture onset. In this study, risk functions for fracture were developed using parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that a 50% risk of frontal bone fracture occurs at a force between 1885 N and 2405 N. Subjects that were found to have a frontal sinus present within the impacted region had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a fracture. There was no association between subject age and fracture force. The results of the current study suggest that utilizing peak force as an estimate of fracture tolerance will overestimate the force necessary to create a frontal bone fracture.


Funk J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Guzman H.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2014

It has been proposed that low speed collisions in which the damage is isolated to the bumper systems can be reconstructed using data from customized quasistatic testing of the bumper systems of the involved vehicles. In this study, 10 quasistatic bumper tests were conducted on 7 vehicle pairs involved in front-to-rear collisions. The data from the quasistatic bumper tests were used to predict peak bumper force, vehicle accelerations, velocity changes, dynamic combined crush, restitution, and crash pulse time for a given impact velocity. These predictions were compared to the results measured by vehicle accelerometers in 12 dynamic crash tests at impact velocities of 2 - 10 mph. The average differences between the predictions using the quasistatic bumper data and the dynamic crash test accelerometer data were within 5% for bumper force, peak acceleration, and velocity change, indicating that the quasistatic bumper testing method had no systematic bias compared to dynamic crash testing. The root mean square differences were 21% - 23% for peak vehicle accelerations and 12% for vehicle velocity changes. The root mean square differences when comparing crash test accelerometer data from one vehicle to the other using Newton's second law and assuming the vehicles to be rigid bodies were 11% - 18% for all parameters. We conclude that quasistatic bumper testing is an effective tool for reconstructing low speed collisions because it replicates the results of dynamic full vehicle crash testing with good accuracy. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Wirth J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionists to create site drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the site of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of Google Earth is not officially documented. To provide a reconstructionist with an estimate of this accuracy, this paper compares measurements made using Google Earth imagery with measurements done by laser theodolite, and laser scanned measurements. Comparisons are made at sites in various states including rural and urban locations. The comparisons show that Google Earth images yield reasonably accurate measurements (RMSE 0.569 feet) over the scale of typical accident reconstruction distances. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Patent
Biodynamic Research Corporation | Date: 2013-03-14

System force-deformation measuring apparatuses (e.g., an apparatus that applies a quasi-static force), such as those, for example, configured to generate data (e.g., non-generic or accident-specific data) that assists in the reconstruction of vehicle collisions.


Patent
Biodynamic Research Corporation | Date: 2015-07-22

System force-deformation measuring apparatuses (e.g., an apparatus that applies a quasi-static force), such as those, for example, configured to generate data (e.g., non-generic or accident-specific data) that assists in the reconstruction of vehicle collisions.

Loading Biodynamic Research Corporation collaborators
Loading Biodynamic Research Corporation collaborators