Biodynamic Research Corporation

San Antonio, TX, United States

Biodynamic Research Corporation

San Antonio, TX, United States

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Sherwood D.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Sponsel W.E.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Lund B.J.,U.S. Army | Gray W.,University of Texas at San Antonio | And 7 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014

Purpose. We qualitatively describe the anatomic features of primary blast ocular injury observed using a postmortem porcine eye model. Porcine eyes were exposed to various levels of blast energy to determine the optimal conditions for future testing. Methods. We studied 53 enucleated porcine eyes: 13 controls and 40 exposed to a range of primary blast energy levels. Eyes were preassessed with B-scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) ultrasonography, photographed, mounted in gelatin within acrylic orbits, and monitored with high-speed videography during blast-tube impulse exposure. Postimpact photography, ultrasonography, and histopathology were performed, and ocular damage was assessed. Results. Evidence for primary blast injury was obtained. While some of the same damage was observed in the control eyes, the incidence and severity of this damage in exposed eyes increased with impulse and peak pressure, suggesting that primary blast exacerbated these injuries. Common findings included angle recession, internal scleral delamination, cyclodialysis, peripheral chorioretinal detachments, and radial peripapillary retinal detachments. No full-thickness openings of the eyewall were observed in any of the eyes tested. Scleral damage demonstrated the strongest associative tendency for increasing likelihood of injury with increased overpressure. Conclusions. These data provide evidence that primary blast alone (in the absence of particle impact) can produce clinically relevant ocular damage in a postmortem model. The blast parameters derived from this study are being used currently in an in vivo model. We also propose a new Cumulative Injury Score indicating the clinical relevance of observed injuries. © 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Wiechel J.F.,S E A Ltd | Wiechel J.F.,Ohio State University | Scott W.R.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

A series of tip-over and off-the-dock impact tests were performed with stand-up forklifts in order to investigate the potential for injury to the operator of a forklift in these types of accidents when the forklift is equipped with an operator's compartment door. One Crown Equipment Company RR Model and one RC Model stand-up forklift were used in the impact tests. The only modification to the forklifts for the tests was the placement of a door on the entrance to the operator's compartment. A Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was placed in the operator's compartment as a human surrogate. During each test, head accelerations, chest accelerations, neck loads and lumbar loads were measured on the ATD. The motion of the forklift and the ATD were filmed with video and highspeed cameras. Results from the impact tests indicate that there is a high risk of head injury in a right side tip-over accident and a high risk of head injury and neck injury in a left side tip-over accident. There is a high risk of a head injury, neck injury and thoracic injury in off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents. In an offthe- dock forks-leading accident there is a high risk of arm/shoulder injury, head injury, and neck injury. In both tipover and off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents there is a high probability of an entrapment injury under the overhead guard on the forklift. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Van Arsdell W.W.,Engineering Principles LLC | Weber P.,Engineering Principles LLC | Stankewich C.,Engineering Principles LLC | Larson B.,Engineering Principles LLC | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the role that load-limiters play with respect to the performance of occupant protection systems, with focus on performance in frontal crashes. Modern occupant protection systems consist of not just the seat belt, but also airbags, interior vehicle surfaces and vehicle structure. Modern seat belts very often incorporate load-limiters as well as pretensioners. Published research has established that load-limiters and pretensioners increase the effectiveness of occupant protection systems. Some have argued that load-limiters with higher deployment thresholds are always better than load-limiters with lower deployment thresholds. Through testing, modeling and analysis, we have investigated this hypothesis, and in this paper we present test and modeling data as well as a discussion to this data and engineering mechanics to explain why this hypothesis is incorrect. Research presented in this paper shows that because load-limiters are just one component of a multi-component occupant protection system, the performance of the overall occupant protection system cannot be predicted from the load-limiter performance or specifications alone. The overall occupant protection system is designed such that the load-limiter works in conjunction with the webbing stiffness, airbag, vehicle interior surfaces and vehicle structure to provide effective occupant protection. This paper shows that effective occupant protection has been achieved using different combinations of these parameters. The appropriate method of evaluating the effectiveness of an occupant protection system is to evaluate the overall performance of that occupant protection system in sled and crash tests and/or calibrated modeling. Tests of load-limiters alone or reliance on the load-limiter specification alone is not a good indicator of the overall effectiveness of an occupant protection system. Tests were conducted to establish the level at which certain retractor load-limiters deployed webbing. This data was cross-referenced with publically available test data, and shoulder belt loads, chest deflection and chest compression, among other injury metrics. Computer modeling was conducted to assess the effect of varying initial load-limiter deployment loads. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.


Cormier J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Manoogian S.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bisplinghoff J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Rowson S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2011

The current understanding of the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact is limited. Previous studies have utilized vastly different methods, which limits the use of statistical analyses to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone. The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact. Acoustic emission sensors were used to provide a noncensored measure of the frontal bone tolerance and were essential due to the increase in impactor force after fracture onset. In this study, risk functions for fracture were developed using parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that a 50% risk of frontal bone fracture occurs at a force between 1885 N and 2405 N. Subjects that were found to have a frontal sinus present within the impacted region had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a fracture. There was no association between subject age and fracture force. The results of the current study suggest that utilizing peak force as an estimate of fracture tolerance will overestimate the force necessary to create a frontal bone fracture. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Cormier J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
Journal of biomechanical engineering | Year: 2011

The current understanding of the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact is limited. Previous studies have utilized vastly different methods, which limits the use of statistical analyses to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone. The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerance of the frontal bone to blunt impact. Acoustic emission sensors were used to provide a noncensored measure of the frontal bone tolerance and were essential due to the increase in impactor force after fracture onset. In this study, risk functions for fracture were developed using parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that a 50% risk of frontal bone fracture occurs at a force between 1885 N and 2405 N. Subjects that were found to have a frontal sinus present within the impacted region had a significantly higher risk of sustaining a fracture. There was no association between subject age and fracture force. The results of the current study suggest that utilizing peak force as an estimate of fracture tolerance will overestimate the force necessary to create a frontal bone fracture.


Funk J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Guzman H.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2014

It has been proposed that low speed collisions in which the damage is isolated to the bumper systems can be reconstructed using data from customized quasistatic testing of the bumper systems of the involved vehicles. In this study, 10 quasistatic bumper tests were conducted on 7 vehicle pairs involved in front-to-rear collisions. The data from the quasistatic bumper tests were used to predict peak bumper force, vehicle accelerations, velocity changes, dynamic combined crush, restitution, and crash pulse time for a given impact velocity. These predictions were compared to the results measured by vehicle accelerometers in 12 dynamic crash tests at impact velocities of 2 - 10 mph. The average differences between the predictions using the quasistatic bumper data and the dynamic crash test accelerometer data were within 5% for bumper force, peak acceleration, and velocity change, indicating that the quasistatic bumper testing method had no systematic bias compared to dynamic crash testing. The root mean square differences were 21% - 23% for peak vehicle accelerations and 12% for vehicle velocity changes. The root mean square differences when comparing crash test accelerometer data from one vehicle to the other using Newton's second law and assuming the vehicles to be rigid bodies were 11% - 18% for all parameters. We conclude that quasistatic bumper testing is an effective tool for reconstructing low speed collisions because it replicates the results of dynamic full vehicle crash testing with good accuracy. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Gwin L.P.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Guzman H.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Scott W.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

There is a paucity of recent data quantifying the injury risk of forces and accelerations that act on the whole body in a back-to-front direction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of back-to-front accelerations that volunteers felt were tolerable and non-injurious. Instrumented volunteers were dropped supine onto a mattress, and their accelerations during the impact with the mattress were measured. Accelerometers were located on the head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar regions. Drop heights started at 0.6 m (2 ft) and progressed upward as high as 1.8 m (6 ft) based on the test subjects' consent. The test panel was comprised of male and female subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 63 years of age and whose masses ranged from 62 to 130 kg (136 to 286 lb). Peak head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar accelerations of 25.9 g, 29.4 g and 39.6 g were measured. There was considerable restitution in the impacts with the mattress and the test subjects experienced changes in velocity (ΔVs) of 5.2-11.4 m/s (11.6-25.5 mph). There were no permanent injuries although some subjects complained of minor symptoms that resolved within six days. This research showed that volunteer subjects can withstand peak back-to-front accelerations in the 20-30 g range without serious injury. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Wirth J.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Bonugli E.,Biodynamic Research Corporation | Freund M.,Biodynamic Research Corporation
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionists to create site drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the site of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of Google Earth is not officially documented. To provide a reconstructionist with an estimate of this accuracy, this paper compares measurements made using Google Earth imagery with measurements done by laser theodolite, and laser scanned measurements. Comparisons are made at sites in various states including rural and urban locations. The comparisons show that Google Earth images yield reasonably accurate measurements (RMSE 0.569 feet) over the scale of typical accident reconstruction distances. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Patent
Biodynamic Research Corporation | Date: 2013-03-14

System force-deformation measuring apparatuses (e.g., an apparatus that applies a quasi-static force), such as those, for example, configured to generate data (e.g., non-generic or accident-specific data) that assists in the reconstruction of vehicle collisions.


Patent
Biodynamic Research Corporation | Date: 2015-07-22

System force-deformation measuring apparatuses (e.g., an apparatus that applies a quasi-static force), such as those, for example, configured to generate data (e.g., non-generic or accident-specific data) that assists in the reconstruction of vehicle collisions.

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