Castillo-Trivino T.,University of California at San Francisco |
Castillo-Trivino T.,Hospital Universitario Donostia |
Castillo-Trivino T.,Biodonostia Institute |
Braithwaite D.,University of California at San Francisco |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved for non Hodgkin lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. It is being considered for the treatment of MS. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab for MS treatment. Data collection: Studies were selected if they were clinical trials, irrespective of the dosage or combination therapies. Main results: Four studies with a total of 599 patients were included. One assessed the efficacy of rituximab for primary progressive (PP) MS while the other three focused on relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. In the PPMS study, rituximab delayed time to confirmed disease progression (CDP) in pre-planned sub-group analyses. The increase in T2 lesion volume was lower in the rituximab group at week 96 compared with placebo. For the RRMS studies, an open-label phase I study found that rituximab reduced the annualized relapse rate to 0.25 from pre-therapy baseline to week 24, while in the randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial, annualized relapse rates were 0.37 in the rituximab group and 0.84 in the placebo group (p = 0.04) at week 24. Rituximab dramatically reduced the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on brain MRI scans for both RRMS studies. Off-label rituximab as an add-on therapy in patients with breakthrough disease on first-line agents was associated with an 88% reduction when comparing the mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions prior to and after the treatment. Although frequent adverse events classified as mild or moderate occurred in up to 77% of the patients, there were no grade 4 infusion-related adverse events. Author's conclusion: Despite the frequent mild/moderate adverse events related to the drug, rituximab appears overall safe for up to 2 years of therapy and has a substantial impact on the inflammatory disease activity (clinical and/or radiological) of RRMS. The effect of rituximab on disease progression in PPMS appears to be marginal. © 2013 Castillo-Trivino et al.
Lopez de Maturana R.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair |
Aguila J.C.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair |
Sousa A.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair |
Vazquez N.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair |
And 8 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014
Inflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathways using primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with 2 common mutations in LRRK2 (G2019S and R1441G), idiopathic PD and age-matched healthy individuals. Basal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 RNA levels were very high in the fibroblasts of all patients. Remarkably, LRRK2 silencing experiments significantly reduced basal COX-2 levels and COX-2 induction after a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Additionally, in samples from patients with the R1441G mutation and with idiopathic PD, we found a prominent cytoplasmic re-distribution of human antigen R, a protein that, among others, stabilizes COX-2 RNA. Furthermore, the response to lipopolysaccharide was defective in these 2 groups, which showed weak induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced NFκB transcriptional activation. In summary, we describe multiple defects in inflammatory pathways in which LRRK2 appears to be critically involved. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic implications of inflammatory dysregulation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Kramerova I.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Kudryashova E.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Ermolova N.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Saenz A.,Biodonostia Institute |
And 7 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012
Mutations in the non-lysosomal, cysteine protease calpain 3 (CAPN3) result in the disease limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A). CAPN3 is localized to several subcellular compartments, including triads, where it plays a structural, rather than a proteolytic, role. In the absence of CAPN3, several triad components are reduced, including the major Ca. 2+ release channel, ryanodine receptor (RyR). Furthermore, Ca. 2+ release upon excitation is impaired in the absence of CAPN3. In the present study, we show that Ca-calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling is compromised in CAPN3 knockout (C3KO) mice. The CaMK pathway has been previously implicated in promoting the slow skeletal muscle phenotype. As expected, the decrease in CaMKII signaling that was observed in the absence of CAPN3 is associated with a reduction in the slow versus fast muscle fiber phenotype. We show that muscles of WT mice subjected to exercise training activate the CaMKII signaling pathway and increase expression of the slow form of myosin; however, muscles of C3KO mice do not exhibit these adaptive changes to exercise. These data strongly suggest that skeletal muscle's adaptive response to functional demand is compromised in the absence of CAPN3. In agreement with our mouse studies, RyR levels were also decreased in biopsies from LGMD2A patients. Moreover, we observed a preferential pathological involvement of slow fibers in LGMD2A biopsies. Thus, impaired CaMKII signaling and, as a result, a weakened muscle adaptation response identify a novel mechanism that may underlie LGMD2A and suggest a pharmacological target that should be explored for therapy. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Matheu A.,UK National Institute for Medical Research |
Matheu A.,Biodonostia Institute |
Collado M.,Tumor Suppression Group |
Wise C.,UK National Institute for Medical Research |
And 14 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012
SOX9 [sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 protein], a high mobility group box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation, and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence, and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary mouse embryo fibroblasts and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whereas its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly, in colorectal cancer. ©2012 AACR.
Cooper C.D.O.,University of Oxford |
Lawrie C.H.,University of Oxford |
Lawrie C.H.,Biodonostia Institute |
Liggins A.P.,University of Oxford |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are generally less common and pursue a more aggressive clinical course than B-cell lymphomas, with the T-cell phenotype itself being a poor prognostic factor in adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). With notable exceptions such as ALK + anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, ALK+), the molecular abnormalities in PTCL remain poorly characterised. We had previously identified circulating antibodies to ALK in patients with ALCL, ALK +. Thus, as a strategy to identify potential antigens associated with the pathogenesis of PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS), we screened a testis cDNA library with sera from four PTCL, NOS patients using the SEREX (serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries) technique. We identified nine PTCL, NOS-associated antigens whose immunological reactivity was further investigated using sera from 52 B- and T-cell lymphoma patients and 17 normal controls. The centrosomal protein CEP250 was specifically recognised by patients sera and showed increased protein expression in cell lines derived from T-cell versus B-cell malignancies. TCEB3, BECN1, and two previously uncharacterised proteins, c14orf93 and ZBTB44, were preferentially recognised by patients' sera. Transcripts for all nine genes were identified in 39 cancer cell lines and the five genes encoding preferentially lymphoma-recognised antigens were widely expressed in normal tissues and mononuclear cell subsets. In summary, this study identifies novel molecules that are immunologically recognised in vivo by patients with PTCL, NOS. Future studies are needed to determine whether these tumor antigens play a role in the pathogenesis of PTCL. © 2011 Cooper et al.
PubMed | University of Barcelona, Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, CIC bioGUNE and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2016
Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification.
Jaka O.,BioDonostia Institute |
Casas-Fraile L.,BioDonostia Institute |
Lopez de Munain A.,BioDonostia Institute |
Saenz A.,BioDonostia Institute
Expert reviews in molecular medicine | Year: 2015
Muscle fibres are very specialised cells with a complex structure that requires a high level of organisation of the constituent proteins. For muscle contraction to function properly, there is a need for not only sarcomeres, the contractile structures of the muscle fibre, but also costameres. These are supramolecular structures associated with the sarcolemma that allow muscle adhesion to the extracellular matrix. They are composed of protein complexes that interact and whose functions include maintaining cell structure and signal transduction mediated by their constituent proteins. It is important to improve our understanding of these structures, as mutations in various genes that code for costamere proteins cause many types of muscular dystrophy. In this review, we provide a description of costameres detailing each of their constituent proteins, such as dystrophin, dystrobrevin, syntrophin, sarcoglycans, dystroglycans, vinculin, talin, integrins, desmin, plectin, etc. We describe as well the diseases associated with deficiency thereof, providing a general overview of their importance.
Vallejo-Illarramendi A.,Biodonostia Institute |
Toral-Ojeda I.,Biodonostia Institute |
Aldanondo G.,Biodonostia Institute |
Lopez de Munain A.,Biodonostia Institute
Expert reviews in molecular medicine | Year: 2014
Muscular dystrophies are a group of diseases characterised by the primary wasting of skeletal muscle, which compromises patient mobility and in the most severe cases originate a complete paralysis and premature death. Existing evidence implicates calcium dysregulation as an underlying crucial event in the pathophysiology of several muscular dystrophies, such as dystrophinopathies, calpainopathies or myotonic dystrophy among others. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most frequent myopathy in childhood, and calpainopathy or LGMD2A is the most common form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, whereas myotonic dystrophy is the most frequent inherited muscle disease worldwide. In this review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of calcium ion cycling through the sarcolemma, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and its involvement in the pathogenesis of these dystrophies. We also discuss some of the clinical implications of recent findings regarding Ca2+ handling as well as novel approaches to treat muscular dystrophies targeting Ca2+ regulatory proteins.
Riancho-Zarrabeitia L.,University of Cantabria |
Delgado-Alvarado M.,University of Cantabria |
Delgado-Alvarado M.,Biodonostia Institute |
Riancho J.,University of Cantabria |
And 8 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2014
Neurologic manifestations are found in 5-15 % of patients with sarcoidosis. This granulomatous disease may affect any part of the peripheral or the central nervous system, being potentially severe and difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are the cornerstone of therapy in sarcoidosis. However, some patients become resistant or experience side effects to corticosteroids. In these patients, second line therapies including immunosuppressive drugs such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide and leflunomide have been used. Anti-TNF-α drugs have been proposed as a therapeutic option for those who are refractory to immunosuppressive drugs or initially in cases of severe sarcoidosis. We report on 5 patients with neurosarcoidosis treated with anti-TNF-α drugs in our center. A literature review of patients with neurosarcoidosis treated with anti-TNF-α drugs was conducted. In our series successful response to anti-TNF-α therapy was achieved. However, the high frequency of relapses following anti-TNF-α discontinuation makes necessary a close follow-up of these patients when the biologic agent is stopped. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2014.
PubMed | Biodonostia Institute
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory and degenerative disease that causes neurological disability. It affects young adults and its prevalence is higher in women. The most common form is manifested as a series of acute episodes of neurological disability (relapses) followed by a recovery phase (remission). Recently, non-coding RNAs have emerged as new players in transcriptome regulation, and in turn, they could have a significant role in MS pathogenesis. In this context, our aim was to investigate the involvement of microRNAs and snoRNAs in the relapse-remission dynamics of MS in peripheral blood leucocytes, to shed light on the molecular and regulatory mechanisms that underlie this complex process. With this approach, we found that a subset of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) is altered in relapse and remission, revealing unexpected opposite changes that are sex dependent. Furthermore, we found that a relapse-related miRNA signature regulated general metabolism processes in leucocytes, and miRNA altered in remission are involved in the regulation of innate immunity. We observed that sncRNA dysregulation is different in relapse and remission leading to differences in transcriptome regulation, and that this process is sex dependent. In conclusion, relapse and remission have a different molecular background in men and women.