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Marshall N.,James Cook University | Adger N.,University of Exeter | Attwood S.,Biodiversity International | Attwood S.,University of East Anglia | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth's ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them. © 2017 Marshall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

RAVISHANKAR K.V.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | VASUDEVA R.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | HEMANTH B.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | SANDYA B.S.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2017

Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb. (Clusiaceae) is an endemic, semidomesticated, fruit-yielding tree species distributed in the Western Ghats of India and Sri Lanka. Various bioactive phytochemicals, such as garcinol, benzophenones and xanthones are isolated from G. gummi-gutta and have shown antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant activities. We sequenced the total genomic DNA using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform and examined 241,141,804 bp high quality data, assembled into 773,889 contigs. In these contigs, 27,313 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, among which mononucleotide repeats were predominant (44.98%) followed by dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats. Primers were designed for 9964 microsatellites among which 32 randomly selected SSR primer pairs were standardized for amplification. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA in 30 G. gummi-gutta genotypes revealed polymorphic information content (PIC) across all 32 loci ranging from 0.867 to 0.951, with a mean value of 0.917. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.63 and 0.896 to 0.974, respectively. Alleles per locus ranged from 12 to 27. This is the first report on the development of genomic SSR markers in G. gummi-gutta using next-generation sequencing technology. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study will be useful in identification, mapping, diversity and breeding studies. © 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences

Sonwa D.J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Sonwa D.J.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Weise S.F.,Biodiversity International | Nkongmeneck B.A.,University of Yaounde I | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

The distribution and composition of the tree component inside cocoa agroforests plays an important role in the economic and ecological services offered by these plantations. The presence of these plant components appears to be influenced by several factors controlling the introduction and management of associated plants inside cocoa agroforests. To date, few studies have tried to evaluate the horizontal and vertical distribution of plants inside cocoa plantations in Cameroon. This study determines the structure of cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. Field data were collected in 60 cocoa plantations belonging to 12 villages located along a contiguous gradient of market access, population density and resource use intensity in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. This study area comprises (i) the sub-region of Yaoundé, (ii) the sub-region of Mbalmayo, and (iii) the sub-region of Ebolowa. Market access, population density and resource use intensity all decreased from the first to the third sub-region. For cocoa and associated plants, we quantified (1) the density (2) the individual number, the species composition and the group uses of plants (edible, timber, medicinal, etc…) distribution across strata, and (3) the basal area in the 60 cocoa plantations located in the three main sub-regions. Results are presented for each sub-region and the whole study area. The paper develops cocoa agroforest typologies and discusses possible implications of cocoa agroforest structure diversity in the achievement of economic and ecological services. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Diaz S.,National University of Cordoba | Demissew S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Carabias J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Joly C.,University of Campinas | And 81 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015

The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decision-makers in different sectors of society. © 2014 The Authors.

Rossmann B.,University of Graz | Muller H.,University of Graz | Smalla K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Mpiira S.,Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. In Uganda, the country with the second largest banana production in the world, bananas are the most important staple food. The objective of this study was to analyze banana-associated microorganisms and to select efficient antagonists against fungal pathogens which are responsible for substantial yield losses. We studied the structure and function of microbial communities (endosphere, rhizosphere, and soil) obtained from three different traditional farms in Uganda by cultivation-independent (PCR-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA/ITS genes, pyrosequencing of enterobacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments, quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and PCR-based detection of broad-host-range plasmids and sulfonamide resistance genes) and cultivation-dependent methods. The results showed microhabitat-specific microbial communities that were significant across sites and treatments. Furthermore, all microhabitats contained a high number and broad spectrum of indigenous antagonists toward identified fungal pathogens. While bacterial antagonists were found to be enriched in banana plants, fungal antagonists were less abundant and mainly found in soil. The banana stem endosphere was the habitat with the highest bacterial counts (up to 109 gene copy numbers g-1). Here, enterics were found to be enhanced in abundance and diversity; they provided one-third of the bacteria and were identified by pyrosequencing with 14 genera, including not only potential human (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp.) and plant (Pectobacterium spp.) pathogens but also disease-suppressive bacteria (Serratia spp.). The dominant role of enterics can be explained by the permanent nature and vegetative propagation of banana and the amendments of human, as well as animal, manure in these traditional cultivations. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Yang J.Y.,University of British Columbia | Scascitelli M.,University of British Columbia | Motilal L.A.,University of the West Indies | Sveinsson S.,University of British Columbia | And 6 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Trinidad and Tobago has a long history of producing high-quality cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Cacao genotypes in Trinidad and Tobago are of a highly distinctive kind, the so-called "Trinitario" cultivar group, widely considered to be of elite quality. The origin of Trinitario cacao is unclear, although it is generally considered to be of hybrid origin. We used massive parallel sequencing to identify polymorphic plastidic single nucleotide polymorphisms (cpSNPs) and polymorphic plastidic simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) in order to determine the origin of the Trinitario cultivar group by comparing patterns of polymorphism to a reference set of ten completely sequenced chloroplast genomes (nine T. cacao and one outgroup, T. grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum). Only three cpSNP haplotypes were present in the Trinitario cultivars sampled, each highly distinctive and corresponding to reference genotypes for the Criollo (CRI), Upper Amazon Forastero (UAF) and Lower Amazon Forastero (LAF) varietal groups. These three cpSNP haplotypes likely represent the founding lineages of cacao to Trinidad and Tobago. The cpSSRs were more variable with eight haplotypes, but these clustered into three groups corresponding to the three cpSNP haplotypes. The most common haplotype found in farms of Trinidad and Tobago was LAF, followed by UAF and then CRI. We conclude that the Trinitario cultivar group is of complex hybrid origin and has derived from at least three original introduction events. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Eteka C.A.,University Abomey Calavi | Ahohuendo B.C.,University Abomey Calavi | Dansi A.,University Abomey Calavi | Assogba-Komlan F.,Benin National Agricultural Research Institute INRAB | And 5 more authors.
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Sesamum radiatum and Justicia tenella are two traditional leafy vegetables highly consumed in Benin. In spite of their importance in food security, nutrition, and income generation, they still remain very little known to the scientific communities. In order to document their diversity and the various traditional cultural practices associated with their production and identity as well as their domestication levels across zones, a survey was conducted in 10 villages randomly selected from different agroecological and ethnic zones of both northern and central Benin. Data were collected in the different sites through application of Participatory Research Appraisal tools and techniques and analysed using both simple descriptive statistics (means, frequencies, etc.) and multivariate analysis (ANOVA, cluster analysis). The study revealed the existence of clear intraspecific diversity within J. tenella contrarily to S. radiatum for which no apparent diversity was noted. In most of the households surveyed, J. tenella and S. radiatum were found respectively at steps 3 and 4 in the domestication process. The production of these vegetable species is still traditional and biologic (no fertilisers, no pesticides). The cultural practices used are not the same for the two species and vary between households and between ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses (Cluster analysis, PCA) conducted based on the various traditional farming practices to examine the relationship between farmers revealed respectively 4 and 5 categories of producers of J. tenella and S. radiatum corresponding to the same numbers of applied traditional technological packages. Further domestication trials were recommended to develop the best technical packages required to master mass production of the species in the future for the benefit of both producers and consumers. Agromorphological and genetic characterisation were also recommended in order to establish the scientific basis for their varietal improvement. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Shaver I.,University of Idaho | Shaver I.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Chain-Guadarrama A.,University of Idaho | Chain-Guadarrama A.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | And 15 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2015

Tropical ecosystem conversion to agriculture has caused widespread habitat loss and created fragmented landscapes composed of remnant forest patches embedded in a matrix of agricultural land uses. Non-traditional agricultural export (NTAE) crops such as pineapple are rapidly replacing multiuse landscapes characterized by a diverse matrix of pasture and smallholder crops with intensive, large-scale, monoculture plantations. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we conduct a case study to examine the coupled social and ecological implications of agricultural intensification in this region, with larger application to regions experiencing similar patterns of agricultural intensification. Guided by frameworks from both political and landscape ecology, we: (1) describe the social and economic implications of pineapple expansion, specifically the concentration of land, labor and financial resources, (2) quantify pineapple cultivation's spatial characteristics, and (3) assess the effects of pineapple expansion on surrounding forest ecosystems, on the agricultural matrix and on biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that pineapple production concentrates land, labor, and financial resources, which has a homogenizing effect on the agricultural economy in the study region. This constrains farm-based livelihoods, with larger implications for food security and agricultural diversity. Landscape ecology analyses further reveal how pineapple production simplifies and homogenizes the agricultural matrix between forest patches, which is likely to have a negative effect on biodiversity. To offset the effects of pineapple expansion on social and environmental systems, we recommend developing landscape level land use planning capacity. Furthermore, agricultural and conservation policy reform is needed to promote landscape heterogeneity and economic diversity within the agricultural sector. Our interdisciplinary research provides a detailed examination of the social and ecological impacts of agricultural intensification in a tropical landscape, and offers recommendations for improvement relevant not only to our study region but to the many other tropical landscapes currently undergoing non-traditional agricultural export driven agricultural intensification. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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