BioDiversity Institute

Gorham, ME, United States

BioDiversity Institute

Gorham, ME, United States
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Costa M.F.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Landing W.M.,Florida State University | Kehrig H.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Barletta M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory "inventory" phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 of the United Nations document "The Future We Want" issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Wilson J.R.U.,Biodiversity Institute | Wilson J.R.U.,Stellenbosch University | Wilson J.R.U.,South African National Biodiversity Institute | Ivey P.,Biodiversity Institute | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Science | Year: 2013

Even with no new introductions, the number of biological invasions in South Africa will increase as introduced species naturalise and become invasive. As of 2010 South Africa had ~8750 introduced plant taxa, 660 recorded as naturalised, 198 included in invasive species legislation, but only 64 subject to regular control (i.e. only widespread invaders are managed post-border). There is only one documented example of a successful eradication programme in continental South Africa - against the Mediterranean snail (Otala punctata) in Cape Town. Here we describe the establishment in 2008 of a unit funded by the Working for Water Programme as part of the South African National Biodiversity Institute's Invasive Species Programme (SANBI ISP) designed to (1) detect and document new invasions, (2) provide reliable and transparent post-border risk assessments and (3) provide the cross-institutional coordination needed to successfully implement national eradication plans. As of the end of 2012, the ISP had an annual budget of R36 million, employed 33 staff working across all nine provinces, supported 10 postgraduate students, hosted 35 interns (including those as part of a drive to collect DNA barcodes for all invasive taxa) and created over 50 000 days of work as part of government poverty alleviation programmes. The unit has worked towards full risk assessments for 39 plant taxa and has developed eradication plans for seven species; the unit is now helping implement these plans. By focusing on science-based management and policy, we argue that SANBI ISP can play a leading role in preventing introduced species from becoming widespread invaders. © 2013. The Authors.

Short A.E.Z.,Biodiversity Institute | Jia F.-L.,Sun Yat Sen University
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Two new species of water scavenger beetles, Oocyclus fikaceki Short & Jia sp. n. and O. dinghu Short & Jia sp. n. are described from Guangdong, Fujian, and Jiangxi Provinces in southeastern China. A revised key to the species of the genus in Indochina and surrounding mainland regions is presented. Copyright © 2011 - Magnolia Press.

Serbet R.,Biodiversity Institute | Escapa I.,Biodiversity Institute | Escapa I.,CONICET | Taylor T.N.,Biodiversity Institute | And 2 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

An extensive collection of compressed altered remains, including leafy shoots and ovules similar to specimens described as Buriadia, is reported from Lower Permian rocks on Mount Gran, Victoria Land, Antarctica. The specimens, preserved as a thin layer of aluminosilicate film in a fine-grained black shale, show a number of morphological features like those reported from the type species, Buriadia heterophylla. The leaves are highly polymorphic and appear to be helically arranged. The ovules are orthotropous and attached to leafy shoots by a short stalk; they do not appear to be organized into distinct zones along the axis. The ovules are obovate, with a conspicuous bifid apex and prominent chalazal disk. The combination of features in these Antarctic specimens indicates affinities with the putative Permian coniferophyte, B. heterophylla, originally described from India. The discovery of a presumed coniferophyte with erect terminal ovules from the Permian of Antarctica adds support to the hypothesis that there were at least two major groups of conifer-like plants present during the late Paleozoic. Differences in the ovulate parts of these plants suggest a unique evolutionary history for the late Paleozoic coniferophytes from the Southern Hemisphere. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maruyama M.,Kyushu University | Yamamoto S.,Kyushu University | Eldredge T.K.,Biodiversity Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

The Japanese species of the tribes Himalusini and Leucocraspedini are reviewed. The tribe Sinanarchusini Pace, 2013 is synonymized with Himalusini in which the genera Protinodes Sharp, 1888, Himalusa Pace, 2006 and Sinanarchusa Pace, 2013 are recognized. Protinodes and Sinanarchusa have been placed in Hygronomini and Sinanarchusini respectively. Only a single species Leucocraspedum rufotestaceum Bernhauer, 1927 is recognized in Japanese fauna of Leucocrasped-ini. Two other known species, Leucocraspedum pallidum Cameron, 1933 and L. parvum Cameron, 1949 are synonymized with L. rufotestaceum. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

PubMed | Biodiversity Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current rheumatology reviews | Year: 2014

Tendency to afflict one part of the skeleton, rather than another, could be referred to as the osseotropism of the disease. That term would also include which part of the particular bone was affected. That, in addition to characteristics of erosions, facilitates distinguishing spondyloarthropathy from rheumatoid arthritis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease and gout. Spondyloarthropathy, however, is not limited to humans. Initially recognized in 20% of gorillas and rhesus macaques, it was subsequently identified in 25% of bears and 35% of rhinoceros. It is truly a pan-mammalian phenomenon, extending from marsupials and rodents to whales and as ancient as dinosaurs.

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