Lund, Sweden

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Nano C.E.M.,University of New England of Australia | Nano C.E.M.,Biodiversity Inc. | Clarke P.J.,University of New England of Australia
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Predicting changes in vegetation structure in fire-prone arid/semi-arid systems is fraught with uncertainty because the limiting factors to coexistence between grasses and woody plants are unknown. We investigated abiotic and biotic factors influencing boundaries and habitat membership in grassland (Triodia or 'spinifex' grassland)-shrubland (Acacia aneura or 'mulga' shrubland) mosaics in semi-arid central Australia. We used a field experiment to test for the effects of: (1) topographic relief (dune/swale habitat), (2) adult neighbour removal, and (3) soil type (sand/clay) on seedling survival in three shrub and two grass species in reciprocal field plantings. Our results showed that invasion of the shrubland (swale) by neighbouring grassland species is negated by abiotic limitations but competition limits shrubland invasion of the grassland (dune). All species from both habitats had significantly reduced survival in the grassland (dune) in the presence of the dominant grass (Triodia) regardless of soil type or shade. Further, the removal of the dominant grass allowed the shrubland dominant (A. aneura) to establish outside its usual range. Seedling growth and sexual maturation of the shrubland dominant (A. aneura) was slow, implying that repeated fire creates an immaturity risk for this non-sprouter in flammable grassland. By contrast, rapid growth and seed set in the grassland shrubs (facultative sprouters) provides a solution to fire exposure prior to reproductive onset. In terms of landscape dynamics, we argue that grass competition and fire effects are important constraints on shrubland patch expansion, but that their relative importance will vary spatially throughout the landscape because of spatial and temporal rainfall variability. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Nilsson L.,Biodiversity Inc.
Ornis Svecica | Year: 2011

Bean Geese Anser fabalis have been neck-banded extensively in the breeding areas in northern Finland during two periods: 1978-1994 and 2002-2009. The observations of these geese showed marked differences in timing of migration and location of wintering and staging areas between the two periods. The Bean Geese stayed further to the north in south Sweden during the autumn in the latter period and arrived later to wintering areas in southernmost Sweden. Moreover they did not go to the Netherlands and western Germany during cold winters in the second as they did in the first period. Spring migration started earlier in the second period. Most patterns revealed by the Finnish neck-banded geese were the same as those shown by the Bean Geese in general as observed by the national goose counts in southern Sweden.


Pavey C.R.,Biodiversity Inc. | Pavey C.R.,CSIRO | Cole J.R.,Biodiversity Inc. | McDonald P.J.,Biodiversity Inc. | Nano C.E.M.,Biodiversity Inc.
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2014

Desert rodents exhibit irruptive (boom-bust) population dynamics in response to pulses of primary productivity. Such unpredictable population dynamics are a challenge for monitoring population trends and managing populations, particularly for species in decline. We studied the population dynamics and occurrence of populations of the vulnerable plains mouse, Pseudomys australis (42-g body mass), during the low (bust) phase of the cycle in the Simpson Desert, Australia, to examine the use of refuges by the species and the predation pressure experienced from native and introduced predators. Specifically we investigated landscape-scale occurrence; body mass, reproduction, and population size; and presence of native and introduced predators. Our results demonstrate that P. australis contracted to discrete areas of the landscape (refuges) during the low phase and that these areas occupied a small proportion (∼17%) of the range occupied during population peaks. Animals in refuge populations had comparable body mass, occurred at similar densities to populations during the boom phase, and continued to reproduce during dry conditions. Such refuges represented a significant concentration of biomass to predators in a resource-poor environment. Native predators were rare during the low phase, suggesting that refuges naturally experienced low predation levels. Two introduced predators, feral house cats and red foxes, persisted during the low phase and exploited refuge populations of P. australis, thus representing a significant threat to population persistence. We advocate a novel approach to management of rodents in arid systems that involves identifying the discrete parts of the landscape that function as drought refuges and then focusing threat management there. The relatively small size of these refuges increases the likelihood of cost-effective management. © 2014 American Society of Mammalogists.


Barendse J.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Francis J.,Biodiversity Inc.
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Seafood fraud is widespread and undermines attempts to achieve more sustainable fisheries and seafood trade. Deliberate mislabelling of fish was first detected in South Africa in 2009, exposing the lack of coherent or explicit naming and labelling regulations. It was followed by considerable media coverage and public outrage. This catalysed a series of events that led to the creation of a new space of engagement where scientists, academics, and industry could begin to jointly solve the issue of seafood mislabelling. This paper first evaluates and identifies the shortcomings of the existing policy and regulatory framework applicable to seafood naming and labelling in South Africa. Next, it examines approaches of some other countries to deal with seafood (mis)naming, and puts forward a set of suggestions that could be used to improve the status quo in South Africa, or any other country in a similar position. Finally, it reports on subsequent developments over the past five years following the seafood scandal, including the formation of a working group with representation from across the seafood supply chain, regulatory bodies, and experts: resulting in a submission of a proposal for a new national standard for seafood market names in South Africa. These findings show how diverse actors can work in a cooperative and practical manner, to solve a common problem. Finally, it highlights the importance of the "bridging" role that non-governmental organisations can play in achieving this. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2011-07-26

Chemicals for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, namely, chemicals in the nature of fertilizers for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, except fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2011-07-26

Chemicals for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, namely, chemicals in the nature of fertilizers for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, except fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2011-01-25

Chemicals for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, namely, chemicals in the nature of fertilizers and plant food for use in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, except fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2011-06-28

Organic waste treatment compounds used in environmental applications, namely, bacteria for use in waste water treatment.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2013-12-04

Fertilizers; detergents for industrial use. body lotions, personal deodorants, soap, detergents, namely, detergents for household use and degreasing detergents, and toothpaste.


Trademark
Biodiversity Inc. | Date: 2017-01-04

Chemical fertilizers; Compost; Fertilizers; Fertilizers and manures; Fertilizers for agricultural use; Fertilizers for domestic use; Mixed fertilizers; Natural fertilizers; Non-chemical bio-fertilizers; soil amendments and soil blends for agricultural crop growth; bio-remediation products, namely, bacteria for use in waste treatment plants, food processing plants, paper processing plants, to capture odors and neutralize toxic substances, rendering them benign to the environment that create a carbon positive result.

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