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Santa Cruz, Ecuador

Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Benatti M.N.,Institute Botanica | Spielmann A.A.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Bryologist | Year: 2013

As part of an ongoing, comprehensive inventory of all Galapagos lichen species, the genus Bulbothrix is revised here. In Galapagos it is represented by five species of which only one, B. laevigatula, had previously been reported. Bulbothrix lyngei, B. scortella and B. subdissecta are all new to Galapagos; they also represent the first reports of these species for Ecuador. A fifth species, Bulbothrix bulbillosa, is described as new to science. © 2013 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Dal-Forno M.,George Mason University | Lucking R.,Science and Education | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Yanez-Ayabaca A.,Central University of Ecuador | And 9 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2016

We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

Lucking R.,Integrative Science and Collections | Dal-Forno M.,George Mason University | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | And 13 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

As part of a larger systematic and taxonomic revision, including molecular phylogenetic analysis, of lichenized Basidiomycota in the Dictyonema clade, ten species are described as new from tropical America, seven in the foliose genus Cora and three in the filamentous genus Dictyonema: Cora arachnoidea J. E. Hern. & Lücking, sp. nov., C. aspera Wilk, Lücking & E. Morales, sp. nov., C. byssoidea Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. cyphellifera Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, sp. nov., C. inversa Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. squamiformis Wilk, Lücking & Yánez-Ayabaca, sp. nov., C. strigosa Lücking, E. Paz & L. Salcedo, sp. nov., Dictyonema aeruginosulum Lücking, Nelsen & Will-Wolf, sp. nov., D. diducens Nyl. ex Lücking, sp. nov., D. metallicum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, sp. nov., and D. obscuratum Lücking, Spielmann & Marcelli, sp. nov. We discuss the taxonomic status of the six names historically established for species belonging in the genus Cora and reinstate the names C. gyrolophia Fr., C. pavonia (Sw.) Fr., and C. reticulifera Vain., providing diagnostic features for these, whereas the status of C. glabrata (Spreng.) Fr. and C. bovei Speg. remains uncertain. The following new combinations are introduced: Cora hirsuta (Moncada & Lücking) Moncada & Lücking, comb. nov., C. minor (Lücking, E. Navarro & Sipman) Lücking, comb. nov., Corella melvinii (Chaves, Lücking & Umaña) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Cyphellostereum phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Dictyonema caespitosum (Johow) Lücking, comb. nov., D. irrigatum (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Lücking, comb. nov., D. phyllophilum (Parmasto) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. et stat. nov., and D. scabridum (Vain.) Lücking, comb. et stat. nov. Keys are presented to the five currently accepted genera and 40 currently recognized species in the genera Cyphellostereum, Dictyonema, Cora, and Corella. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Yanez-Ayabaca A.,Biodiversity Assessment | Yanez-Ayabaca A.,Central University of Ecuador | Ahti T.,University of Helsinki | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

As part of an ongoing comprehensive inventory of the Galapagos lichen flora, all species in the Cladoniaceae from the archipelago have been revised using both historic and recent collections. A total of twenty-six species is reported here, one species of Cladia and twenty-five Cladonia species. One species, Cladonia bungartzii, is described as new to science; seven are records new to Ecuador and the Galapagos: Cladonia corymbosula, C. polyscypha, C. pulverulenta, C. pyxidata, C. aff. sphacelata, and C. strepsilis. Four species have previously been reported from Ecuador, but are new to Galapagos: C. cartilaginea, C. chlorophaea, C. dactylota, and C. grayi. Eight species previously reported cannot be confirmed here. Detailed descriptions are presented for all species. They include diagnostic characteristics to distinguish similar species. An identification key to all Galapagos Cladoniaceae is provided. A brief discussion highlights the importance of baseline inventories and uses the Galapagos Cladoniaceae as a case study to discuss important aspects of lichen biogeography in Galapagos. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Yanez A.,Biodiversity Assessment | Yanez A.,Central University of Ecuador | Dal-Forno M.,George Mason University | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

As part of an ongoing comprehensive inventory of Galapagos lichens, a first assessment of the morphology and anatomy of basidiolichens from the archipelago is presented here. It is the basis for further studies of the taxonomy, ecology and biogeography of this poorly known group of lichens. Four genera, all in Hygrophoraceae, can be distinguished: Acantholichen, Cora, Cyphellostereum and Dictyonema. Both Acantholichen and Cora are characterized by chroococcoid cyanobionts and a heteromerous thallus with a distinct upper cortex and photobiont layer. The monotypic Acantholichen pannarioides is entirely composed of small, branched, inflated squamules that appear densely pruinose because their cortical hyphae bear characteristically swollen, densely spinose end cells (acanthohyphidia); this species has never been observed fertile. The common Cora glabrata is foliose, forming large, radially zonate, conch-like, often tiled thalli, when fertile with circular lines of basidiocarps on its lower side. Dictyonema is distinguished by filamentous cyanobionts and distinctly filamentous thalli that are homomereous (i.e., not distinctly layered); all species of Dictyonema s.str. have trichomes (filamentose cyanobacterial photobionts) closely enveloped by fungal cells of a jigsaw pattern. In D. sericeum thallus filaments (i.e., individual fibrils) aggregate to form shelf-like structures similar in appearance to polyporoid bracket fungi; basidiocarps develop in irregular patches on the lower side of these shelves. In contrast, fibrils of D. schenkianum grow encrusting their substrate with irregularly to suberect trichomes, occasionally bearing basidiocarps dispersed across the thallus. Two other species in Galapagos show adpressed growth form and are described here as new: Dictyonema pectinatum, which is characterized by large parallel fibrils with paler, papillate tips, and D. galapagoense, characterized by thin trichomes of more squarrish elongate cells. The genus Cyphellostereum is represented by two species: the newly described C. imperfectum and an unnamed Cyphellostereum sp., both phenotypically similar to free-living cyanobacterial filaments. Cyphellostereum imperfectum has narrow photobiont filaments with irregular hyphal sheath leaving interspaces; macroscopically it shows a bluish green thallus with a distinct prothallus. Cyphellostereum sp. has a rather uncommon basidiolichen appearance: thin sctytonematoid fibrils surrounded by straight fungal cells forming shiny tufts. The new combination Cyphellostereum nitidum is also proposed. The ecology and taxonomy of Galapagos basidiolichens is briefly discussed and a key and short descriptions of all species are presented. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.

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