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Santa Cruz, Ecuador

Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Benatti M.N.,Institute Botanica | Spielmann A.A.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul

As part of an ongoing, comprehensive inventory of all Galapagos lichen species, the genus Bulbothrix is revised here. In Galapagos it is represented by five species of which only one, B. laevigatula, had previously been reported. Bulbothrix lyngei, B. scortella and B. subdissecta are all new to Galapagos; they also represent the first reports of these species for Ecuador. A fifth species, Bulbothrix bulbillosa, is described as new to science. © 2013 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc. Source

Dal-Forno M.,George Mason University | Lucking R.,Science and Education | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Yanez-Ayabaca A.,Central University of Ecuador | And 9 more authors.

We present a taxonomic revision of the lichenized basidiomycete genus Acantholichen, species of which produce a characteristic blue-gray, microsquamulose thallus with spiny apical hyphal cells known as acanthohyphidia. Since its discovery, the genus was thought to be monospecific, only including the generic type, A. pannarioides. However, a detailed morphological and anatomical study of recently collected specimens from the Galápagos, Costa Rica, Brazil and Colombia, combined with a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and 28S of the nuc rDNA and RPB2 sequences, revealed a much more diverse and widespread species assemblage. Based on the results of these analyses, we describe five new species in the genus: A. albomarginatus, A. campestris, A. galapagoensis, A. sorediatus and A. variabilis. We also provide an identification key to all species, anatomical and morphological descriptions, photographs and a table comparing main characters of each species. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America. Source

Lucking R.,Integrative Science and Collections | Dal-Forno M.,George Mason University | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | And 13 more authors.

As part of a larger systematic and taxonomic revision, including molecular phylogenetic analysis, of lichenized Basidiomycota in the Dictyonema clade, ten species are described as new from tropical America, seven in the foliose genus Cora and three in the filamentous genus Dictyonema: Cora arachnoidea J. E. Hern. & Lücking, sp. nov., C. aspera Wilk, Lücking & E. Morales, sp. nov., C. byssoidea Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. cyphellifera Dal-Forno, Bungartz & Lücking, sp. nov., C. inversa Lücking & Moncada, sp. nov., C. squamiformis Wilk, Lücking & Yánez-Ayabaca, sp. nov., C. strigosa Lücking, E. Paz & L. Salcedo, sp. nov., Dictyonema aeruginosulum Lücking, Nelsen & Will-Wolf, sp. nov., D. diducens Nyl. ex Lücking, sp. nov., D. metallicum Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, sp. nov., and D. obscuratum Lücking, Spielmann & Marcelli, sp. nov. We discuss the taxonomic status of the six names historically established for species belonging in the genus Cora and reinstate the names C. gyrolophia Fr., C. pavonia (Sw.) Fr., and C. reticulifera Vain., providing diagnostic features for these, whereas the status of C. glabrata (Spreng.) Fr. and C. bovei Speg. remains uncertain. The following new combinations are introduced: Cora hirsuta (Moncada & Lücking) Moncada & Lücking, comb. nov., C. minor (Lücking, E. Navarro & Sipman) Lücking, comb. nov., Corella melvinii (Chaves, Lücking & Umaña) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Cyphellostereum phyllogenum (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. nov., Dictyonema caespitosum (Johow) Lücking, comb. nov., D. irrigatum (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Lücking, comb. nov., D. phyllophilum (Parmasto) Lücking, Dal-Forno & Lawrey, comb. et stat. nov., and D. scabridum (Vain.) Lücking, comb. et stat. nov. Keys are presented to the five currently accepted genera and 40 currently recognized species in the genera Cyphellostereum, Dictyonema, Cora, and Corella. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Hillmann G.,Biodiversity Assessment | Hillmann G.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Klaus K.,Lichenologisches Institute Neumarkt | And 2 more authors.

As part of an ongoing species inventory for the Galapagos Archipelago, sterile leprose and leproid lichens have been revised. Differences between leprose vs. leproid growth forms are discussed in the light of significant recent advances in the taxonomy of Lepraria. Five species have a strictly leprose morphology: Lepraria achariana, L. aff. incana, L. finkii, and L. vouauxii (all new to Galapagos), and L. lendemeri sp. nov. A sixth species, L. tenella, forms minutely fruticose thalli, but its recent transfer from Leprocaulon into Lepraria confirms its close affinity to species with similar chemistry such as L. vouauxii. Even though L. vouauxii does not develop pseudopodetia, it forms thalli that closely resemble immature specimens of L. tenella. Fertile material of a seventh species, "Lepraria" usnica, also new to Galapagos, confirms that this species does indeed belong in the Pilocarpaceae as molecular studies previously indicated. Its apothecia are identical to those of a Septotrapelia. Consequently, the recently described genus Nelsenium is reduced to synonymy and the new combination Septotrapelia usnica proposed. Many other sterile lichens occur in Galapagos and several have a very similar, leproid or even leprose morphology. A key for all those taxa is presented, emphasizing their inconspicuous, though distinct morphological differences. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Bungartz F.,Biodiversity Assessment | Bungartz F.,University of Azuay | Dutan-Patino V.L.,Biodiversity Assessment | Dutan-Patino V.L.,University of Azuay | Elix J.A.,Australian National University

As part of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory of Galapagos lichens, all species in two closely related genera, Cryptothecia and Herpothallon, are reviewed. Both genera are superficially similar, ecorticate, cottony-byssoid crusts and are unusual insofar as their asci do not develop in distinct ascomata, but instead within ascigerous areas or even solitary inside pseudisidia. Species of Herpothallon typically have an I- medulla and are covered in ecorticate pseudisidia; only a single species is known fertile. Cryptothecia is characterized by ascigerous areas with loosely aggregated asci. In some species the asci are isolated, but others have closely aggregated asci embedded in a hyphal matrix with some carbonization, perhaps indicating preliminary stages towards a development of true ascomata. Lirellate ascomata of the enigmatic, monotypic Helminthocarpon leprevostii show similarity with these ascigerous areas, especially of C. darwiniana and C. galapagoana, two species newly described here. Both also have similar asci and ascospores. As previously suggested, Helminthocarpon should thus not be included in Graphidaceae, but it belongs in Arthoniales, possibly in Arthoniaceae or Opegraphaceae. A key to all species and brief descriptions are provided. Two of the three Cryptothecia species and two of the seven Herpothallon species reported here are new to science. All records apart from Herpothallon rubrocinctum are new to Galapagos and Ecuador. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2013. Source

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