Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F

Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Ali T.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Schmuker A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Runge F.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Solovyeva I.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | And 15 more authors.
Taxon | Year: 2016

The genus Thlaspi has been variously subdivided since its description by Linnaeus in 1753, but due to similarities in fruit shape several segregates have still not gained broad recognition, despite the fact that they are not directly related to Thlaspi. This applies especially to segregates now considered to belong to the tribe Coluteocarpeae, which includes several well-studied taxa, e.g., Noccaea caerulescens (syn. Thlaspi caerulescens), and the widespread Microthlaspi perfoliatum (syn. Thlaspi perfoliatum). The taxonomy of this tribe is still debated, as a series of detailed monographs on Coluteocarpeae was not published in English and a lack of phylogenetic resolution within this tribe was found in previous studies. The current study presents detailed phylogenetic investigations and a critical review of morphological features, with focus on taxa previously placed in Microthlaspi. Based on one nuclear (ITS) and two chloroplast (matK, trnL-F) loci, four strongly supported major groups were recovered among the Coluteocarpeae genera included, corresponding to Ihsanalshehbazia gen. nov., Friedrichkarlmeyeria gen. nov., Microthlaspi s.str., and Noccaea s.l. In addition, two new species of Microthlaspi, M. sylvarum-cedri sp. nov. and M. mediterraneo-orientale sp. nov., were discovered, which are well supported by both morphological and molecular data. Furthermore, M. erraticum comb. nov. (diploid) and M. perfoliatum s.str. (polyploid) were shown to be distinct species, phylogenetically widely separate, but with some overlap in several morphological characters. Detailed descriptions, notes on taxonomy, geographical distribution, and line drawings for the new species and each species previously included in Microthlaspi are provided. In addition, the current taxonomic state of the tribe Coluteocarpeae is briefly discussed and it is concluded that while several annual taxa are clearly distinct from Noccaea, many perennial taxa, after thorough phylogenetic and morphological investigations, may have to be merged with this genus. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2016.

Toth M.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute | Magyari E.K.,HAS NHMUS Research group for Paleontology | Brooks S.J.,Natural History Museum in London | Braun M.,Debrecen University | And 5 more authors.
Quaternary Research | Year: 2012

Late glacial and early Holocene summer temperatures were reconstructed based on fossil chironomid assemblages at Lake Brazi (Retezat Mountains) with a joint Norwegian-Swiss transfer function, providing an important addition to the late glacial quantitative climate reconstructions from Europe. The pattern of the late glacial temperature changes in Lake Brazi show both similarities and some differences from the NGRIP δ 18O record and other European chironomid-based reconstructions. Our reconstruction indicates that at Lake Brazi (1740ma.s.l.) summer air temperature increased by ~2.8°C at the Oldest Dryas/Bølling transition (GS-2/GI-1) and reached 8.1-8.7°C during the late glacial interstade. The onset of the Younger Dryas (GS-1) was characterized by a weak (<1°C) decrease in chironomid-inferred temperatures. Similarly, at the GS-1/Holocene transition no major changes in summer temperature were recorded. In the early Holocene, summer temperature increased in two steps and reached ~12.0-13.3°C during the Preboreal. Two short-term cold events were detected during the early Holocene between 11,480-11,390 and 10,350-10,190calyr BP. The first cooling coincides with the Preboreal oscillation and shows a weak (0.7°C) temperature decrease, while the second is characterized by 1°C cooling. Both cold events coincide with cooling events in the Greenland ice core records and other European temperature reconstructions. © 2011.

Magyari E.K.,HAS NHMUS Research Group for Paleontology | Jakab G.,Szent Istvan University | Balint M.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Kern Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

High-resolution pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossil analyses of two glacial lake sediments (1740 and 1990 m a.s.l.) are used to reconstruct Lateglacial (LG) and early Holocene (EH) vegetation and tree line changes in the Retezat Mountains. Our results show that during the LG, tree line was between 1750 and 1800 m a.s.l. formed by Larix decidua, Pinus mugo and Picea abies. Early LG spread to high altitudes suggests refugia of these tree species in the mountain. The Younger Dryas cooling resulted in regional steppe-tundra expansion, but tree line position and composition showed little change. The abundance of trees and shrubs decreased at 1740 m a.s.l., but species richness increased with the arrival of Pinus cembra. Our data support climate-model hindcasts for only modest decrease in accumulated growing season heat at mid-high altitudes. Regionally the pollen records suggest enhanced aridity and seasonality. In the EH, tree line reached 2000 m a.s.l. (higher than today) by ∼11,100 cal yr BP. P. mugo, P. cembra, P. abies established around the upper lake suggesting rapid increase in summer temperatures. The EH maximum of L. decidua between 11,200-10,600 cal yr BP was connected to high summer insolation. High altitude expansion of Abies alba between 10,600-10,300 cal yr BP suggested summer mean temperatures ∼2.8 °C higher then today. In comparison with other mountain sites in Europe, LG interstadial tree line was at similar altitude in the S Alps and ∼350 m higher in the Pirin Mountains. LG tree line fluctuation had similar low amplitude in the SE Alps, Retezat and Pirin Mts suggesting relatively weak influence of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation changes on growing season temperatures. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Higgins S.I.,Goethe University Frankfurt | O'Hara R.B.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Bykova O.,University of Toronto | Cramer M.D.,University of Cape Town | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim To develop a physiologically based model of the plant niche for use in species distribution modelling. Location Europe. Methods We link the Thornley transport resistance (TTR) model with functions which describe how the TTR's model parameters are influenced by abiotic environmental factors. The TTR model considers how carbon and nutrient uptake, and the allocation of these assimilates, influence growth. We use indirect statistical methods to estimate the model parameters from a high resolution data set on tree distribution for 22 European tree species. Results We infer, from distribution data and abiotic forcing data, the physiological niche dimensions of 22 European tree species. We found that the model fits were reasonable (AUC: 0.79-0.964). The projected distributions were characterized by a false positive rate of 0.19 and a false negative rate 0.12. The fitted models are used to generate projections of the environmental factors that limit the range boundaries of the study species. Main conclusions We show that physiological models can be used to derive physiological niche dimensions from species distribution data. Future work should focus on including prior information on physiological rates into the parameter estimation process. Application of the TTR model to species distribution modelling suggests new avenues for establishing explicit links between distribution and physiology, and for generating hypotheses about how ecophysiological processes influence the distribution of plants. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Scheiter S.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Savadogo P.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Savadogo P.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2016

The welfare of people in the tropics and sub-tropics strongly depends on goods and services that savanna ecosystems supply, such as food and livestock production, fuel wood, and climate regulation. Flows of these services are strongly influenced by climate, land use and their interactions. Savannas cover c. 20% of the Earth's land surface and changes in the structure and dynamics of savanna vegetation may strongly influence local people's living conditions, as well as the climate system and global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we use a dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM, to explore interactive effects of climate and land use on the vegetation structure and distribution of West African savannas under current and anticipated future environmental conditions. We parameterized the model for West African savannas and extended it by including sub-models to simulate fire management, grazing, and wood cutting. The model projects that under future climate without human land use impacts, large savanna areas would shift toward more wood dominated vegetation due to CO2 fertilization effects, increased water use efficiency and decreased fire activity. However, land use activities could maintain desired vegetation states that ensure fluxes of important ecosystem services, even under anticipated future conditions. Ecosystem management can mitigate climate change impacts on vegetation and delay or avoid undesired vegetation shifts. The results highlight the effects of land use on the future distribution and dynamics of savannas. The identification of management strategies is essential to maintain important ecosystem services under future conditions in savannas worldwide. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Breitbach N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Tillmann S.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Tillmann S.,Justus Liebig University | Schleuning M.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | And 5 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2012

Land-use intensification is a major cause for the decline in species diversity in human-modified landscapes. The loss of functionally important species can reduce a variety of ecosystem functions, such as pollination and seed dispersal, but the intricate relationships between land-use intensity, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are still contentious. Along a gradient from forest to intensively used farmland, we quantified bee species richness, visitation rates of bees and pollination success of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). We analysed the effects of structural habitat diversity at a local scale and of the proportion of suitable habitat around each tree at a landscape scale. We compared these findings with those from previous studies of seed-dispersing birds and mammals in the same model system and along the same land-use gradient. Bee species richness and visitation rates were found to be highest in structurally simple habitats, whereas bird species richness-but not their visitation rates-were highest in structurally complex habitats. Mammal visitation rates were only influenced at the landscape scale. These results show that different functional groups of animals respond idiosyncratically to gradients in habitat and landscape structure. Despite strong effects on bees and birds, pollination success and bird seed removal did not differ along the land-use gradient at both spatial scales. These results suggest that mobile organisms, such as bees and birds, move over long distances in intensively used landscapes and thereby buffer pollination and seed-dispersal interactions. We conclude that measures of species richness and interaction frequencies are not sufficient on their own to understand the ultimate consequences of land-use intensification on ecosystem functioning. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Breitbach N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Bohning-Gaese K.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Bohning-Gaese K.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Laube I.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Schleuning M.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

In Central Europe, many plant populations are patchily distributed in human-modified landscapes and depend on animal vectors for seed dispersal. To predict seed-dispersal distances and locations of seeds of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) in forest and farmland habitats in a human-modified landscape, we integrate movement data and seed regurgitation times of the Common Blackbird (Turdus merula L.) in a simulation model. We performed feeding trials with Common Blackbirds and wild cherries to determine the distribution of regurgitation times. We captured 32 male blackbirds and equipped them with radio tags to follow their movements in forest and farmland habitats. To simulate the movement of cherry seeds through the landscape, we combined the distribution of regurgitation times with bird movement data and modelled seed-dispersal distances and locations of seed deposition for forest and farmland birds. According to our simulations, more cherry seeds were deposited under foraging trees in farmland (20.8%) than in forest populations (9.5%). Median seed-dispersal distances (50.8 vs. 68.2 m) and the proportion of long-distance dispersal events (distances > 100 m) were predicted to be lower in farmland (14.9%) than in forest populations (28.2%). In the model, forest-dwelling blackbirds dispersed more cherry seeds into suitable habitat (98.7%) than farmland blackbirds (85.4%). In both habitats, seed deposition in suitable habitat was much higher than expected from the proportion of suitable habitat within blackbirds' home ranges, indicating directed dispersal. To test whether differences in seed-dispersal locations were related to recruitment success, we recorded seedling densities in farmland and forest populations of P. avium and determined survival probabilities of seedlings. Seedling densities and survival were much lower in farmland than in forest populations, even accounting for strong environmental effects on seedling recruitment. Synthesis: Our findings show that behavioural differences of animal seed dispersers between habitat types can result in substantial changes in seed-dispersal distances and locations in human-modified habitats. These changes in seed-dispersal services for bird-dispersed plant species may be related to reduced seedling recruitment in farmland populations making such populations prone to extinction in the long term. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

Ujvarosi L.,Babes - Bolyai University | Balint M.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Balint M.,Babes - Bolyai University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Integrative taxonomy enhances species discovery and facilitates species delimitation by combining DNA sequence data, morphology, and distributional and ecological information. In this paper we use complementary methods of morphology and DNA barcoding to delineate species boundaries in a widespread European spring-dwelling crane-fly, Pedicia (Amalo-pis) occulta (Meigen). We describe a previously overlooked large cryptic dipteran as Pedicia (Amalopis) fusca n. sp. We also designate the lectotype of P. occulta of the basis of a comprehensive study of relevant type specimens. Morphological differences between the two species are delicate but detectable, and comprise mostly male genital structures. However, the sequence divergence of 13.1% reflects an ancient divergence, which plausibly pre-dates the Pleistocene. The European Amalopis species differ significantly from all the rest of Amalopis species with Far East distributions, but share a number of similarities with a species identified from the Himalayas, India and described as Pedicia (Tricyphona) ericarum Alex-ander, 1966. We also discuss a possible close relationship between P. ericarum and the European Amalopis species. © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Nilsson M.A.,University of Munster | Nilsson M.A.,Lund University | Harlid A.,Lund University | Kullberg M.,Lund University | Janke A.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F
Gene | Year: 2010

The native rodents are the most species-rich placental mammal group on the Australian continent. Fossils of native Australian rodents belonging to the group Conilurini are known from Northern Australia at 4.5. Ma. These fossil assemblages already display a rich diversity of rodents, but the exact timing of their arrival on the Australian continent is not yet established. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two native Australian rodents, Leggadina lakedownensis (Lakeland Downs mouse) and Pseudomys chapmani (Western Pebble-mound mouse) were sequenced for investigating their evolutionary history. The molecular data were used for studying the phylogenetic position and divergence times of the Australian rodents, using 12 calibration points and various methods.Phylogenetic analyses place the native Australian rodents as the sister-group to the genus Mus. The Mus-Conilurini calibration point (7.3-11.0. Ma) is highly critical for estimating rodent divergence times, while the influence of the different algorithms on estimating divergence times is negligible. The influence of the data type was investigated, indicating that amino acid data are more likely to reflect the correct divergence times than nucleotide sequences.The study on the problems related to estimating divergence times in fast-evolving lineages such as rodents, emphasize the choice of data and calibration points as being critical. Furthermore, it is essential to include accurate calibration points for fast-evolving groups, because the divergence times can otherwise be estimated to be significantly older. The divergence times of the Australian rodents are highly congruent and are estimated to 6.5-7.2. Ma, a date that is compatible with their fossil record. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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