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Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc. | Whalen P.A.,LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.
Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik | Year: 2013

An integral component of the ASTM process for new standard test methods is to perform an interlaboratory study (ILS). In January 2011, ten companies participated in an ILS for ASTM E 2694 Method for Measurement of Adenosine Triphosphate in Water-Miscible metalworking Fluids. The ILS included samples of emulsifiable oil, semi-synthetic and synthetic metalworking fluid formulations with ATP bioburdens ranging from 0.3 Log10 pg ATP mL-1 to >5.0 Log 10 pg ATP mL-1. This presentation discusses the ILS test plan design and results.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc. | Whalen P.A.,LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2012 | Year: 2012

An integral component of the ASTM process for new standard test methods is to perform an inter-laboratory study (ILS). In January 2011, ten companies participated in an ILS for ASTM E 2694 Method for Measurement of Adenosine Triphosphate in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids. The ILS included samples of emulsifiable oil, semi-synthetic and synthetic metalworking fluid formulations with ATP bioburdens ranging from 0.3 Log10 pg ATP mL-1 to >5.0 Log 10 pg ATP mL-1. This presentation discusses the ILS test plan design and results.


Koch T.,Isarstrasse 95 | Passman F.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc. | Rabenstein A.,Bremen Institute for Materials Testing
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2015

Microbial activity is one of the primary causes of water-miscible metalworking fluid (MWF) deterioration in application. Although it is impractical to maintain MWF under microbe-free conditions, timely, accurate and easily interpreted microbial contamination condition can substantially reduce the risk of MWF biodeterioration. This paper compares different condition monitoring methods detecting the microbial contamination of MWF related to their speed and precision in laboratory and field samples. Two culture tests (plate count and dip-slides) and two adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test methods were compared. Additionally the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) is introduced as a method for the identification of bacterial strains isolated from MWF. The results clearly indicate that MWF monitoring is in need of standardization concerning sampling, area of measurement, and analysis of determinable cell counts as well as species communities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc. | Kuenzi P.,Blaser Swisslube
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2015

A new variation of a method for quantifying cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) is described. The variation permits differentiation between cATP from bacteria and cATP from fungi. This paper describes the process by which the new differential cATP method was developed and validate in both laboratory and field tests. Laboratory tests using bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi demonstrated that cATP observed in ≥5 μm and <5 μm size-fractions, respectively were consistently within ±10% of predicted concentrations. The field evaluation during which four participating metalworking fluid (MWF) compounders collectively tested <250 used MWF samples, confirmed that the differential protocol reliably detected fungal contamination when it was present. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc.
13th International Conference on Stability, Handling and Use of Liquid Fuels 2013 | Year: 2013

There are several challenges associated with the use of microbioslogical parameters as fuel quality criteria. Microbes proliferate only where there is sufficient free-water to support metabolic activity. Consequently, microbes are most often detected in fuel-associated water rather than fuel itself. Samples well suited for testing other fuel quality parameters are generally inappropriate for microbiological examination. Distribution of microbes is typically quite heterogeneous. Consequently, variability among replicate samples from the same source can be sufficient to lead to different conclusions regarding the need for corrective action. Notwithstanding these challenges, microbiological test data provide useful information about microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems. Understanding the factors contributing to data variability and bias provides users for these data with the perspective needed to interpret them objectively and accurately. In 2012, ASTM approved D7847 Guide for Interlaboratory Studies for Microbiological Test Methods. This paper reviews the primary issues addressed by D7847. © (2013) by IASH. All rights reserved.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2012

During the past decade we have witnessed a tumultuous debate over the disease risks posed by microbes that inhabit metalworking fluid (MWF) systems. Not infrequently, that debate has occurred in the absence of satisfactory data. This paper addresses the author's perspective on what types of data are needed in order to assess the actual disease risks posed by MWF microbes. The approach must be multidisciplinary and coordinated, including stakeholders with expertise in epidemiology, fluid management, immunology, industrial hygiene, microbiology, and public health medicine. Traditional microbiological sampling and test methods must be augmented by new, consensus methods that are adopted by industry stakeholders. Entities performing these tests should be participating in interlaboratory cross-check programs. The author will use Mycobacterium immunogenum to illustrate the general model for this strategy.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2013

Although the documentation of fuel biodeterioration dates back to the late 19th century, general recognition of the value of microbial contamination control evolved slowly until the 1980s. Since the early 1980s a number of factors have converged to stimulate greater interest in fuel and fuel system biodeterioration. This, in turn, has stimulated applied research in the ecology of biodeteriogenic processes and biodeterioration control. This presentation reviews progress in both of these areas since 1980. The aforementioned factors that have provided the impetus for improved microbial control, the evolution of our understanding of the nature of the biodeteriogenic processes will be discussed. Activities of consensus organizations to develop guidelines and practices will also be reviewed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2010

Countries have regulated the use of microbicide to control microbial contamination in fluid-blending systems during in-drum storage. The EPA in the US has administered pesticide regulations that led to a significant effect on both the variety of active ingredients and number of microbicide manufacturers in the MWF industry. European Union implementation of the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) and REACH has influenced the regulatory atmosphere for MWF microbicides. One of the major implications of REACH is that it might require essentially the same environmental persistence and toxicological data as currently required under the BDP for all chemicals sold into or manufactured within the EU. The US EPA registration review for hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2- hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine (HTHT) likely to require HTHT manufacturers to submit new data for the complete battery of acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity tests (estimated cost $4 million).


Passman F.J.,Biodeterioration Control Associates, inc. | Egger II G.L.,Caterpillar Inc. | Hallahan S.,Caterpillar Inc. | Skinner B.W.,Caterpillar Inc. | Deschepper M.,Caterpillar Inc.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2010

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays have been used to quantify bioburdens (biomass) in low-organic-compoundcontent fluids (freshwater, seawater, cooling tower water, and similar fluids) since the early 1950s. The original methodology was labor intensive and required considerable laboratory skill. Over the past half-century, the protocol has been simplified substantially, but until recently, chemical interferences made it impractical to use the ATP test in metalworking fluids (MWF). This article presents precision and bias statistics for a new test protocol for ATP in emulsifiable oil, semisynthetic and synthetic MWF at end-use dilutions. Additionally it presents the results of field tests in which ATP data are compared with other MWF condition monitoring data. The field evaluation demonstrates the applicability of the new protocol to MWF bioburden condition monitoring. Copyright © STLE.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.95K | Year: 2010

Uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuels can cause both fuel and equipment biodeterioration. Common symptoms of fuel biodeterioration include but are not limited to increased corrosivity, decreased oxidative stability and decreased energy value. In order to prevent microbial contamination from developing inside aircraft tanks, the treatment system must reduce the bioburden to below the threshold population size. The two primary strategies for killing microbes are chemical and physical. Chemical treatment entails the use of a microbicidal additive. The USAF is reluctant to use microbicides due to their toxicity. The alternative is physical treatment. The objective of the proposed research program will be to develop a non-additive based technology to eliminate microbial contamination from aviation fuels located in different segments of the fuel delivery and storage process. The system will be designed primarily as a final stage fuel treatment apparatus that can be mounted at fueling hydrants to ensure that microbes present in delivered kerosene-grade fuel are below the threshold population size. The system will be designed to be scalable in order to be usable at different stages of the fuel transportation infrastructure from pipeline to aircraft. BENEFIT: Uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuel systems costs an estimated $4 billion as microbially influenced corrosion damage to infrastructure and product degradation. Commercial airline operators estimate that remediating contaminated aircraft wing tanks combined lost revenues while aircraft are out of service for decontamination costs > $2 million per event. Other high-value, purturbence-sensitive fuel systems include diesel and gas turbine power generation systems. The commercialized version of the proposed disinfection system, installed at military and commercial airports, and power generation facilities will eliminate the need for toxic microbicidal chemicals and substantially reduce the adverse costs of uncontrolled microbial contamination in fuels and fuel systems.

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