BioDetection Systems BV BDS

Amsterdam, Netherlands

BioDetection Systems BV BDS

Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Simon E.,VU University Amsterdam | Simon E.,BioDetection Systems B.v. BDS | Van Velzen M.,VU University Amsterdam | Brandsma S.H.,VU University Amsterdam | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Compounds with transthyretin (TTR)-binding potency in the blood plasma of polar bear cubs were identified with effect-directed analysis (EDA). This approach contributes to the understanding of the thyroid disrupting exposome of polar bears. The selection of these samples for in-depth EDA was based on the difference between the observed TTR-binding potency on the one hand and the calculated potency (based on known concentrations of TTR-binding compounds and their relative potencies) on the other. A library-based identification was applied to the liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) data by screening for matches between compound lists and the LC-ToF-MS data regarding accurate mass and isotope pattern. Then, isotope cluster analysis (ICA) was applied to the LC-ToF-MS data allowing specific screening for halogen isotope patterns. The presence of linear and branched nonylphenol (NP) was observed for the first time in polar bears. Furthermore, the presence of one di- and two monohydroxylated octachlorinated biphenyls (octaCBs) was revealed in the extracts. Linear and branched NP, 4′-OH-CB201 and 4,4′-OH-CB202 could be successfully confirmed with respect to their retention time in the analytical system. In addition, branched NP, mono- and dihydroxylated-octaCBs showed TTR-binding potencies and could explain another 32 ± 2% of the total measured activities in the extracts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Pitardi D.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Del Piemonte Liguria E Valle Daosta | Cini B.,Test Veritas Srl | Paleologo M.,Tecna Srl | Brouwer A.,BioDetection Systems B.V. BDS | And 8 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose–response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay’s ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Weiss J.M.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Simon E.,VU University Amsterdam | Stroomberg G.J.,Center for Water Management | De Boer R.,Center for Water Management | And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Effect-directed analysis has been applied to a river sediment sample of concern to identify the compounds responsible for the observed effects in an in vitro (anti-)androgenicity assay. For identification after non-target analysis performed on a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap, we developed a de novo identification strategy including physico-chemical parameters derived from the effect-directed analysis approach. With this identification strategy, we were able to handle the immense amount of data produced by non-target accurate mass analysis. The effect-directed analysis approach, together with the identification strategy, led to the successful identification of eight androgen-disrupting compounds belonging to very diverse compound classes: an oxygenated polyaromatic hydrocarbon, organophosphates, musks, and steroids. This is one of the first studies in the field of environmental analysis dealing with the difficult task of handling the large amount of data produced from non-target analysis. The combination of bioassay activity assessment, accurate mass measurement, and the identification and confirmation strategy is a promising approach for future identification of environmental key toxicants that are not included as priority pollutants in monitoring programs. © 2011 The Author(s).


Rostkowski P.,University of Sussex | Horwood J.,University of Sussex | Shears J.A.,University of Exeter | Lange A.,University of Exeter | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some UK Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTWs) has been associated with exposure to estrogenic and potentially antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in the effluents. In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in WwTW effluents and fish was conducted using HPLC in combination with in vitro androgen receptor transcription screens. Analysis of extracts of wastewater effluents revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 21-53 HPLC fractions. Structures of bioavailable antiandrogens were identified by exposing rainbow trout to a WwTW effluent and profiling the bile for AA activity using yeast (anti-YAS) and mammalian-based (AR-CALUX) androgen receptor transcription screens. The predominant fractions with AA activity in both androgen receptor screens contained the germicides chlorophene and triclosan, and together these contaminants accounted for 51% of the total anti-YAS activity in the fish bile. Other AA compounds identified in bile included chloroxylenol, dichlorophene, resin acids, napthols, oxybenzone, 4-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. Pure standards of these compounds were active in the androgen receptor screens at potencies relative to flutamide of between 0.1 and 13.0. Thus, we have identified, for the first time, a diverse range of AA chemicals in WwTWs that are bioavailable to fish and which need to be assessed for their risk to the reproductive health of these organisms and other aquatic biota. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Vetter W.,University of Hohenheim | Bendig P.,University of Hohenheim | Blumenstein M.,University of Hohenheim | Hagele F.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Fish is a major source for the intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, fish is scarcely consumed without being cooked, and previous studies showed that the heating of salmon fillet contaminated with BDE-209 for longer periods of time was accompanied with the partial transformation of this brominated flame retardant. In this study, we heated salmon fillet spiked with BDE-209 and verified that this process was linked with the formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) in the fish. Each minute of heating 1 g salmon fillet spiked with 200 ng BDE-209 generated about 0.5 ‰ PBDFs relative to the initial amount of the pre-dioxin BDE-209. This result of the chemical analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was verified by means of an effect-directed bio-assay (DR CALUX). While unheated salmon with BDE-209 and heated salmon without BDE-209 were tested nontoxic, the bioanalytical response of fish linearly increased upon heating. We also found that PBDF formation did neither occur with BDE-47 nor when BDE-209 was heated in edible oil instead of salmon fillet. Due to the formation of PBDFs in this process, the consumption of heated, BDE-209 contaminated fish may add to the uptake of dioxin-like compounds with our diet. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Husain A.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Gevao B.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Dashti B.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Brouwer A.,BioDetection Systems BV BDS | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2014

A total of 318 local and imported meat, milk, eggs, fish, and animal feed samples collected in Kuwait were analyzed by cell-based reporter gene assay (Dioxin-Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression DR-CALUX) for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) obtained by DR-CALUX bioassay were compared with the official maximum limits according to the European Commission (EC) regulations. Suspected and randomly chosen negative samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The results showed that among suspected samples, one sample was confirmed to be non-compliant. The positive sample was of imported origin. The correlation coefficient of 0.98 between DR-CALUX and GC-HRMS was found. Moreover, the average daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for the Kuwaiti population were estimated. Results obtained in this study were discussed and compared with other published data. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Bovee T.F.H.,Wageningen University | Helsdingen R.J.R.,Wageningen University | Hamers A.R.M.,Wageningen University | Brouwer B.A.,BioDetection Systems B.V. BDS | Nielen M.W.F.,Wageningen University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Sensitive and robust bioassays for glucocorticoids are very useful for the pharmaceutical industry, environmental scientists and veterinary control. Here, a recombinant yeast cell was constructed that expresses the human glucocorticoid receptor alpha and a green fluorescent reporter protein in response to glucocorticoids. Both the receptor construct and the reporter construct were stably integrated into the yeast genome. The correct and specific functioning of this yeast glucocorticoid bioassay was studied by exposures to cortisol and other related compounds and critically compared to a GR-CALUX bioassay based on a human bone cell. Although less sensitive, the new yeast glucocorticoid bioassay showed sensitivity towards all (gluco)corticoids tested, with the following order in relative potencies: budesonide >> corticosterone > dexamethasone > cortisol = betamethasone > prednisolone > aldosterone. Hormone representatives for other hormone nuclear receptors, like 17β-estradiol for the oestrogen receptor, 5α-dihydrotestosterone for the androgen receptor and progesterone for the progesterone receptor, showed no clear agonistic responses, whilst some polychlorinated biphenyls were clearly able to interfere with the GR activity. © 2011 The Author(s).


Simon E.,BioDetection Systems b.v. BDS | Simon E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Lamoree M.H.,VU University Amsterdam | Hamers T.,VU University Amsterdam | de Boer J.,VU University Amsterdam
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Effect-directed analysis (EDA), the combined use of bioassay-guided fractionation and analytical chemical techniques, enables detection of chemicals by their effects, facilitates identification of non-target compounds and transformation products with a certain toxic mode of action and assists in revealing mixture effects. To date, EDA has been restricted mainly to abiotic environmental compartments (e.g., sediment, water, and household dust) and has scarcely been applied to biotic compartments (e.g., tissue or homogenate of organisms, blood, and urine) due to difficulties in sample preparation of biological materials prior to bio/chemical analyses. EDA of biological samples is particularly suitable for: (i) identification of non-target compounds causing biological threat, while considering their bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and possible metabolization; or, (ii) indicating toxicity when the analyzed target compounds can only partly explain the measured effects. This overview discusses the importance, the challenges and the recent improvements in EDA with a focus on biota samples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Bovee T.F.H.,Wageningen University | Heskamp H.H.,Wageningen University | Helsdingen R.J.R.,Wageningen University | Hamers A.R.M.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Use of hormones for fattening purposes is forbidden in the animal production in Europe (European Commission. 1996. Council Directive EC/96/22 (replacement of 88/146/EC). Off J Eur Commun. L125:3-9; European Commission. 1996. Council Directive EC/96/23. Off J Eur Commun. L125:10-32). Moreover, Regulation (EC) 178/2002 (European Commission. 2002. Regulation EC No 178/2002. Off J Eur Commun. L31:1-24) and Regulation (EC) 882/2004 (European Commission. 2004. Regulation EC No 882/2004. Off J Eur Commun. L165:1-135) oblige the member states to identify emerging risks and use validated and accredited methods for control analysis. Only combinations of bioassay activity screening with chemical identification are suited to uphold all laws. No such combination is described for the detection of (gluco)corticoids. In the present study, the GR-CALUX bioassay was validated as a qualitative screening method for the determination of glucocorticoid activity in feed. This validation was performed according to EC Decision 2002/657/EC (European Commission. 2002. Commission Decision 2002/657/EC from Directive 96/23. Off J Eur Commun. L221:8-36). Twenty-two representative blank feed samples were selected and spiked with 50 ng g-1 of dexamethasone, 100 ng g-1 of betamethasone or 500 ng g-1 of triamcinolone. All blank and spiked feed samples fulfilled the CCα and CCβ criteria; the method was specific and robust and glucocorticoids in feed were stable for at least 88 days. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Moriwaki H.,Shinshu University | Sakiyama T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Yamoto Y.,Kansai University | Weber R.,Ulmenstarasse 3 | And 3 more authors.
Bunseki Kagaku | Year: 2013

Products of a thermal reaction of chlorpyrifos were analyzed by LC/MS and GC/MS. As a result, it was found that chlorpyrifos undergoes an elimination reaction of phosphate by a thermal reaction. Furthermore, it is indicated that the structural analogue of 2,3,7,8-TCDD arises by a thermal reaction of chlorpyrifos. In addition, the toxicity of the products of the thermal reaction of chlorpyrifos, evaluated by DR-CALUX®, was higher than that of chlorpyrifos itself. © 2013 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.

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