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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Gijsbers L.,Wageningen University | Van Eekelen H.D.L.M.,Wageningen University | Van Eekelen H.D.L.M.,Plant Research International | Nguyen T.H.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The market for food products with additional health benefits is increasing rapidly and tools for identification of bio-functional characteristics of food items are essential. To facilitate the detection of beneficial effects of tomato on gene expression, methods to prepare tomato extracts suitable to test in the EpRE LUX assay and other cell-based reporter gene assays for health-related bioactivity mechanisms, were developed. An isoprenoid-containing chloroform extract of tomato fruit and most individual isoprenoids did not induce electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene expression. A semi-polar extract of tomato fruits, enzymatically hydrolysed to remove the glycosyl residues from the phenolic ingredients was able to induce EpRE-mediated luciferase expression at both mRNA and protein level, which might be partly due to the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin and naringenin chalcone. It was concluded that induction of EpRE-regulated genes, such as detoxifying phase II and antioxidant enzymes, may contribute to the beneficial health effects of tomato. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Beekmann K.,Wageningen University | Rubio L.,University of Lleida | De Haan L.H.J.,Wageningen University | Actis-Goretta L.,Nestle | And 4 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2015

The consumption of dietary flavonoids has been associated with a variety of health benefits, including effects mediated by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). Flavonoids are extensively metabolized during and after uptake and there is little known on the biological effects of these conjugated metabolites of flavonoids that are found in plasma. To investigate the effect of glucuronidation on the ability of flavonoids to activate PPAR-γ we studied and compared the activity of quercetin, kaempferol and their relevant plasma conjugates quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3G) and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide (K3G) on different PPAR-γ related endpoints. The flavonoid aglycones increased PPAR-γ mediated gene expression in a stably transfected reporter gene cell line and glucuronidation diminished their effect. To study the intrinsic activity of the test compounds to activate PPAR-γ we used a novel microarray technique to study ligand induced ligand binding domain (LBD)-nuclear receptor coregulator interactions. In this cell-free system we demonstrate that, unlike the known PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, neither the flavonoid aglycones nor the conjugates are agonistic ligands of the receptor. The increases in reporter gene expression in the reporter cells were accompanied by increased PPAR-γ receptor-mRNA expression and quercetin synergistically increased the effect of rosiglitazone in the reporter gene assay. It is concluded that flavonoids affect PPAR-γ mediated gene transcription by a mode of action different from agonist binding. Increases in PPAR-γ receptor mRNA expression and synergistic effects with endogenous PPAR-γ agonists may play a role in this alternative mode of action. Glucuronidation reduced the activity of the flavonoid aglycones. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory | ten Broek R.,The Water Laboratory | de Jong K.,The Water Laboratory | Pieterse B.,BioDetection Systems | Kroesbergen J.,The Water Laboratory
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

The river Meuse serves as a drinking-water source for more than 6 million people in France, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides, both designed to be biologically active, are important classes of contaminants present in this river. The variation in the presence of pharmaceuticals in time and space in the Dutch part of the Meuse was studied using a multicomponent analytical method for pharmaceuticals combined with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the results. Trends and variation in time in the presence of pharmaceuticals were investigated in a dead-end side stream of the Meuse that serves as an intake point for the production of drinking water, and 93% of the selected compounds were detected. Highest concentrations were found for the antidiabetic metformin. Furthermore, a spatial snapshot of the presence of pharmaceuticals and pesticides was made along the river Meuse. Principal component analysis was successfully applied to reveal that wastewater-treatment plant effluent and water composition at the Belgian border were the main factors determining which compounds are found at different locations. The Dutch part of the river basin appeared responsible for approximately one-half of the loads of pharmaceuticals and pesticides discharged by the Meuse into the North Sea. The present study showed that multicomponent monitoring in combination with principal component analysis is a powerful tool to provide insight into contamination patterns in surface waters. © 2013 SETAC.

Suzuki G.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Tue N.M.,Ehime University | Malarvannan G.,Ehime University | Sudaryanto A.,Ehime University | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Indoor dust is a sink for many kinds of pollutants, including flame retardants (FRs), plasticizers, and their contaminants and degradation products. These pollutants can be migrated to indoor dust from household items such as televisions and computers. To reveal high-priority end points of and contaminant candidates in indoor dust, using CALUX reporter gene assays based on human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell lines, we evaluated and characterized the endocrine-disrupting potencies of crude extracts of indoor dust collected from Japan (n = 8), the United States (n = 21), Vietnam (n = 10), the Philippines (n = 17), and Indonesia (n = 10) and for 23 selected FRs. The CALUX reporter gene assays used were specific for compounds interacting with the human androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). Indoor dust extracts were agonistic to ERα, GR, and PPARγ2 and antagonistic against AR, PR, GR, and PPARγ2. In comparison, a majority of FRs was agonistic to ERα and PPARγ2 only, and some FRs demonstrated receptor-specific antagonism against all tested nuclear receptors. Hierarchical clustering clearly indicated that agonism of ERα and antagonism of AR and PR were common, frequently detected end points for indoor dust and tested FRs. Given our previous results regarding the concentrations of FRs in indoor dust and in light of our current results, candidate contributors to these effects include not only internationally controlled brominated FRs but also alternatives such as some phosphorus-containing FRs. In the context of indoor pollution, high-frequency effects of FRs such as agonism of ERα and antagonism of AR and PR are candidate high-priority end points for further investigation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

van der Burg B.,BioDetection Systems
Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) | Year: 2011

In spite of extensive research in the area over many decades, there is still a shortage of accepted alternative testing methods in reproductive toxicology. Of the variety of alternative methods developed for reproductive toxicity testing not a single one has reached regulatory acceptance. Although various standardized tests have been described, their predictability and applicability domains have so far not satisfactorily been defined. In the near future this situation will only change if new approaches are explored. Current regulatory needs in combination with technological innovations set the scene for rapid progress in this area.

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