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Smith K.E.,University of Florida | Raymond S.L.,University of Florida | Valenti M.L.,University of Florida | Smith P.J.S.,BioCurrents Research Center | Linser P.J.,University of Florida
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

Ion regulation is a biological process crucial to the survival of mosquito larvae and a major organ responsible for this regulation is the rectum. The recta of anopheline larvae are distinct from other subfamilies of mosquitoes in several ways, yet have not yet been characterized extensively. Here we characterize the two major cell types of the anopheline rectum, DAR and non-DAR cells, using histological, physiological, and pharmacological analyses. Proton flux was measured at the basal membrane of 2%- and 50%-artificial sea water-reared An. albimanus larvae using self-referencing ion-selective microelectrodes, and the two cell types were found to differ in basal membrane proton flux. Additionally, differences in the response of that flux to pharmacological inhibitors in larvae reared in 2% versus 50% ASW indicate changes in protein function between the two rearing conditions. Finally, histological analyses suggest that the non-DAR cells are structurally suited for mediating ion transport. These data support a model of rectal ion regulation in which the non-DAR cells have a resorptive function in freshwater-reared larvae and a secretive function in saline water-reared larvae. In this way, anopheline larvae may adapt to varying salinities. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Fussell K.C.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | Udasin R.G.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | Smith P.J.S.,BioCurrents Research Center | Gallo M.A.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | Laskin J.D.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2011

Estrogens are major risk factors for the development of breast cancer; they can be metabolized to catechols, which are further oxidized to DNA-reactive quinones and semiquinones (SQs). These metabolites are mutagenic and may contribute to the carcinogenic activity of estrogens. Redox cycling of the SQs and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also an important mechanism leading to DNA damage. The SQs of exogenous estrogens have been shown to redox cycle, however, redox cycling and the generation of ROS by endogenous estrogens has never been characterized. In the present studies, we determined whether the catechol metabolites of endogenous estrogens, including 2-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol, can redox cycle in breast epithelial cells. These catechol estrogens, but not estradiol, estrone, estriol or 2-methoxyestradiol, were found to redox cycle and generate hydrogen peroxide (H. 2O. 2) and hydroxyl radicals in lysates of three different breast epithelial cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A. The generation of ROS required reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as a reducing equivalent and was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a flavoenzyme inhibitor, indicating that redox cycling is mediated by flavin-containing oxidoreductases. Using extracellular microsensors, catechol estrogen metabolites stimulated the release of H. 2O. 2 by adherent cells, indicating that redox cycling occurs in viable intact cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that catechol metabolites of endogenous estrogens undergo redox cycling in breast epithelial cells, resulting in ROS production. Depending on the localized concentrations of catechol estrogens and enzymes that mediate redox cycling, this may be an important mechanism contributing to the development of breast cancer. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Prabhakar S.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Prabhakar S.,Harvard University | Brenner G.J.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Sung B.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Gene Therapy | Year: 2010

Schwannomas are benign tumors forming along peripheral nerves that can cause deafness, pain and paralysis. Current treatment involves surgical resection, which can damage associated nerves. To achieve tumor regression without damage to nerve fibers, we generated an HSV amplicon vector in which the apoptosis-inducing enzyme, caspase-1 (ICE), was placed under the Schwann cell-specific P0 promoter. Infection of schwannoma, neuroblastoma and fibroblastic cells in culture with ICE under the P0 promoter showed selective toxicity to schwannoma cells, while ICE under a constitutive promoter was toxic to all cell types. After direct intratumoral injection of the P0-ICE amplicon vector, we achieved marked regression of schwannoma tumors in an experimental xenograft mouse model. Injection of this amplicon vector into the sciatic nerve produced no apparent injury to the associated dorsal root ganglia neurons or myelinated nerve fibers. The P0-ICE amplicon vector provides a potential means of knifeless resection of schwannoma tumors by injection of the vector into the tumor with low risk of damage to associated nerve fibers. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved. Source


Alavian K.N.,Yale University | Alavian K.N.,Imperial College London | Dworetzky S.I.,Knopp Biosciences LLC | Bonanni L.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Inefficiency of oxidative phosphorylation can result from futile leak conductance through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Stress or injury may exacerbate this leak conductance, putting cells, and particularly neurons, at risk of dysfunction and even death when energy demand exceeds cellular energy production. Using a novel method, we have recently described an ion conductance consistent with mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) within the c-subunit of the ATP synthase. Excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species-producing stimuli, or elevated mitochondrial matrix calcium opens the channel, which is inhibited by cyclosporine A and ATP/ADP. Here we show that ATP and the neuroprotective drug dexpramipexole (DEX) inhibited an ion conductance consistent with this c-subunit channel (mPTP) in brain-derived submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) enriched for F1FO ATP synthase (complex V). Treatment of SMVs with urea denatured extramembrane components of complex V, eliminated DEX- but not ATP-mediated current inhibition, and reduced binding of [14C]DEX. Direct effects of DEX on the synthesis and hydrolysis of ATP by complex V suggest that interaction of the compound with its target results in functional conformational changes in the enzyme complex. [14C]DEX bound specifically to purified recombinant b and oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein subunits of the mitochondrial F1FO ATP synthase. Previous data indicate that DEX increased the efficiency of energy production in cells, including neurons. Taken together, these studies suggest that modulation of a complex V-associated inner mitochondrial membrane current is metabolically important and may represent an avenue for the development of new therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Source


Alavian K.N.,Yale University | Dworetzky S.I.,Knopp Biosciences LLC | Bonanni L.,University of Chieti Pescara | Zhang P.,Yale University | And 15 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2012

Cellular stress or injury can result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been linked to many chronic neurological disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Stressed and dysfunctional mitochondria exhibit an increase in large conductance mitochondrial membrane currents and a decrease in bioenergetic efficiency. Inefficient energy production puts cells, and particularly neurons, at risk of death when energy demands exceed cellular energy production. Here we show that the candidate ALS drug dexpramipexole (DEX; KNS-760704; ((6R)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-N6-propyl-2,6- benzothiazole-diamine) and cyclosporine A (CSA) inhibited increases in ion conductance in whole rat brain-derived mitochondria induced by calcium or treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, although only CSA inhibited calcium-induced permeability transition in liver-derived mitochondria. In several cell lines, including cortical neurons in culture, DEX significantly decreased oxygen consumption while maintaining or increasing production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). DEX also normalized the metabolic profile of injured cells and was protective against the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibition. These data indicate that DEX increases the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, possibly by inhibition of a CSA-sensitive mitochondrial conductance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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