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Lopez J.I.,University of the Basque Country | Cortes J.M.,BioCruces Research Institute | Cortes J.M.,Ikerbasque | Cortes J.M.,University of the Basque Country
F1000Research | Year: 2016

Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far. Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. © 2016 Lopez JI and Cortes JM.


Rada D.,University of the Basque Country | Seco J.,University of Leon | Seco J.,University of the Basque Country | Echevarria E.,University of the Basque Country | And 3 more authors.
Parkinson's Disease | Year: 2016

Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. © 2016 D. Rada et al.


Larrinaga G.,University of the Basque Country | Larrinaga G.,BioCruces Research Institute | Blanco L.,University of the Basque Country | Blanco L.,BioCruces Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

Several studies have proposed that protease expression and activity may have a predictive value in the survival of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). Most efforts on this issue have been focused on the analysis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and very little on the role of other proteases, such as peptidases. The catalytic activity of 9 peptidases (APN, APB, ASP, CAP, DPP-IV, NEP/CD10, PEP, PGI, and PSA) was quantified by fluorometric methods in a series of 79 CCRCC patients, and the results obtained were analyzed for survival (Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test, and Cox multivariate analysis). CCRCC patients with higher activity levels of membrane-bound APN and soluble APN, DPP-IV, and CAP had significantly shorter 5-yr survival rates than those with lower levels. By contrast, higher soluble APB activity significantly correlated with longer survival. Our data suggest the involvement of peptidases in the biological aggressiveness of CCRCC and support the usefulness of measuring these proteases to assess the prognosis of patients with CCRCC. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Martinez-Una M.,University of the Basque Country | Martinez-Una M.,BioCruces Research Institute | Varela-Rey M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | Mestre D.,University of the Basque Country | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) export lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues and are the precursors of low-density-lipoproteins. Low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) decrease triglyceride (TG) secretion in VLDLs, contributing to hepatosteatosis in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice but nothing is known about the effect of SAMe on the circulating VLDL metabolism. We wanted to investigate whether excess SAMe could disrupt VLDL plasma metabolism and unravel the mechanisms involved. Methods Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (KO) mice, GNMT and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) double KO (GNMT-PLIN2-KO) and their respective wild type (WT) controls were used. A high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine deficient diet (MDD) was administrated to exacerbate or recover VLDL metabolism, respectively. Finally, 33 patients with non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD); 11 with hypertriglyceridemia and 22 with normal lipidemia were used in this study. Results We found that excess SAMe increases the turnover of hepatic TG stores for secretion in VLDL in GNMT-KO mice, a model of NAFLD with high SAMe levels. The disrupted VLDL assembly resulted in the secretion of enlarged, phosphatidylethanolamine-poor, TG- and apoE-enriched VLDL-particles; special features that lead to increased VLDL clearance and decreased serum TG levels. Re-establishing normal SAMe levels restored VLDL secretion, features and metabolism. In NAFLD patients, serum TG levels were lower when hepatic GNMT-protein expression was decreased. Conclusions Excess hepatic SAMe levels disrupt VLDL assembly and features and increase circulating VLDL clearance, which will cause increased VLDL-lipid supply to tissues and might contribute to the extrahepatic complications of NAFLD. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tijero B.,BioCruces Research Institute | Tijero B.,Cruces University Hospital | Gabilondo I.,BioCruces Research Institute | Gabilondo I.,Cruces University Hospital | And 24 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2015

Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the presence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PARK2 mutation carriers. Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 8 PARK2 carriers (age: 60.1±12.8 years) and 13 individuals with idiopathic PD (iPD) (age: 59.2±8.9 years). Autonomic dysfunction was measured using the SCOPA-AUT questionnaire, non-invasive autonomic tests and responses of noradrenaline and vasopressin levels to postural changes. Myocardial sympathetic denervation was assessed with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. This damage was further investigated in postmortem epicardial tissue of one PARK2 carrier and three control cases (two PD patients and one subject without PD). Results: The prevalence of autonomic symptoms and orthostatic hypotension (OH) was lower in PARK2 mutation carriers than in iPD patients (SCOPA OUT: 3.4±4.8 vs. 14.7±7.2, p<0.001; OH: present in three iPD patients but none of the PARK2 mutation carriers). Second, sympathetic myocardial denervation was less severe in PARK2 mutation carriers compared to controls, both in MIBG scintigraphy (late H/M uptake ratio: 1.52±0.35 vs. 1.32±0.25 p<0.05) and in postmortem tissue study. Interestingly, axonal alpha-synuclein deposits were absent in epicardial tissue of the PARK2 mutation carrier while they were present in the two PD patients. Interpretation: Our study supports the view that autonomic nervous system dysfunction and myocardial sympathetic denervation are less pronounced in PARK2 mutation carriers than in individuals with iPD, suggesting that the involvement of small peripheral sympathetic nerve fibers is a minor pathological hallmark in PARK2 carriers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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