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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Garcia-Cazorla A.,Neurometabolic Unit | Mochel F.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases | Mochel F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lamari F.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases | Saudubray J.-M.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2014

Over one hundred diseases related to inherited defects of complex lipids synthesis and remodeling are now reported. Most of them were described within the last 5 years. New descriptions and phenotypes are expanding rapidly. While the associated clinical phenotype is currently difficult to outline, with only a few patients identified, it appears that all organs and systems may be affected. The main clinical presentations can be divided into (1) Diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Complex lipid synthesis disorders produce prominent motor manifestations due to upper and/or lower motoneuron degeneration. Motor signs are often complex, associated with other neurological and extra-neurological signs. Three neurological phenotypes, spastic paraparesis, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation and peripheral neuropathies, deserve special attention. Many apparently well clinically defined syndromes are not distinct entities, but rather clusters on a continuous spectrum, like for the PNPLA6-associated diseases, extending from Boucher-Neuhauser syndrome via Gordon Holmes syndrome to spastic ataxia and pure hereditary spastic paraplegia; (2) Muscular/cardiac presentations; (3) Skin symptoms mostly represented by syndromic (neurocutaneous) and non syndromic ichthyosis; (4) Retinal dystrophies with syndromic and non syndromic retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, cone rod dystrophy, Stargardt disease; (5) Congenital bone dysplasia and segmental overgrowth disorders with congenital lipomatosis; (6) Liver presentations characterized mainly by transient neonatal cholestatic jaundice and non alcoholic liver steatosis with hypertriglyceridemia; and (7) Renal and immune presentations. Lipidomics and molecular functional studies could help to elucidate the mechanism(s) of dominant versus recessive inheritance observed for the same gene in a growing number of these disorders. © 2014, SSIEM. Source


Lamari F.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases | Mochel F.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases | Mochel F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Saudubray J.-M.,Bioclinic and Genetic Unit of Neurometabolic Diseases
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2014

In a review published in 2012, we delineated 14 inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) related to defects in biosynthesis of complex lipids, particularly phospholipids and sphingolipids (Lamari et al 2013). Given the numerous roles played by these molecules in membrane integrity, cell structure and function, this group of diseases is rapidly expanding as predicted. Almost 40 new diseases related to genetic defects in enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and remodelling of phospholipids, sphingolipids and complex fatty acids are now reported. While the clinical phenotype associated with these defects is currently difficult to outline, with only a few patients identified to date, it appears that all organs and systems may be affected — central and peripheral nervous system, eye, muscle, skin, bone, liver, immune system, etc. This chapter presents an introductive overview of this new group of IEM. More broadly, this special issue provides an update on other IEM involving complex lipids, namely dolichol and isoprenoids, glycolipids and congenital disorders of glycosylation, very long chain fatty acids and plasmalogens. Likewise, more than 100 IEM may actually lead to primary or secondary defects of complex lipids synthesis and remodelling. Because of the implication of several cellular compartments, this new group of disorders affecting the synthesis and remodelling of complex molecules challenges our current classification of IEM still largely based on cellular organelles—i.e. mitochondrial, lysosomal, peroxisomal disorders. While most of these new disorders have been identified by next generation sequencing, we wish to emphasize the promising role of lipidomics in deciphering their pathophysiology and identifying therapeutic targets. © 2014, SSIEM. Source


Dard R.,La Pitie Salpetriere University Hospital | Mignot C.,La Pitie Salpetriere University Hospital | Durr A.,La Pitie Salpetriere University Hospital | Durr A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2015

ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3-subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, has been involved in four clinical neurological entities: (1) alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC); (2) rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP); (3) CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome; and (4) early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we report on a 34-year-old female presenting with a new ATP1A3-related entity involving a relapsing encephalopathy characterized by recurrent episodes of cerebellar ataxia and altered consciousness during febrile illnesses. The term RECA is suggested - relapsing encephalopathy with cerebellar ataxia. The phenotype of this patient, resembling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects, emphasizes the possible role of brain energy deficiency in patients with ATP1A3 mutations. Rather than multiple overlapping syndromes, ATP1A3-related disorders might be seen as a phenotypic continuum. © 2015 Mac Keith Press. Source

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