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Dupre T.,Biochimie Metabolique et Cellulaire | Dupre T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dupre T.,University Paris Diderot | Vuillaumier-Barrot S.,Biochimie Metabolique et Cellulaire | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: In type I congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG I), proteins necessary for the biosynthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) required for protein N-glycosylation are defective. A deficiency in guanosine diphosphate-mannose: GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol mannosyltransferase-1 (MT-1) causes CDG Ik (OMIM 608540), and only five patients, with severe multisystemic clinical presentations, have been described with this disease. Objective: To characterise genetic, biochemical and clinical data in five new CDG Ik cases and compare these findings with those of the five previously described patients. Methods: LLO biosynthesis was examined in skin biopsy fibroblasts, mannosyltransferases were assayed in microsomes prepared from these cells, and ALG1-encoding MT-1 was sequenced at the DNA and complementary DNA levels. Clinical data for the five new patients were collated. Results: Cells from five patients with non-typed CDG I revealed accumulations of GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol, the second intermediate in the biosynthesis of LLO. Assay of MT-1, -2 and -3, the first three mannosyltransferases required for extension of this intermediate, demonstrated only MT-1 to be deficient. DNA sequencing of ALG1 revealed nine different mutations, seven of which have not been previously reported. Clinical presentations are severe, with dysmorphias, CNS involvement and ocular disturbances being prevalent. Conclusions: 5 patients with CDG Ik are described, and their identification reveals that in France, this disease and CDG Ib (mannose phosphate isomerase deficiency: OMIM 602579) are the most frequently diagnosed CDG I after CDG Ia (phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency: OMIM 601785) and substantiate previous observations indicating that this disease presents at the severe end of the CDG I clinical spectrum.

Chantret I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chantret I.,University Paris Diderot | Fasseu M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Fasseu M.,University Paris Diderot | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: During mammalian protein N-glycosylation, 20% of all dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (LLO) appear as free oligosaccharides (fOS) bearing the di-N-acetylchitobiose (fOSGN2), or a single N-acetylglucosamine (fOSGN), moiety at their reducing termini. After sequential trimming by cytosolic endo β -N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) and Man2c1 mannosidase, cytosolic fOS are transported into lysosomes. Why mammalian cells generate such large quantities of fOS remains unexplored, but fOSGN2 could be liberated from LLO by oligosaccharyltransferase, or from glycoproteins by NGLY1-encoded Peptide-N-Glycanase (PNGase). Also, in addition to converting fOSGN2 to fOSGN, the ENGASE-encoded cytosolic ENGase of poorly defined function could potentially deglycosylate glycoproteins. Here, the roles of Ngly1p and Engase1p during fOS metabolism were investigated in HepG2 cells. Methods/Principal Findings: During metabolic radiolabeling and chase incubations, RNAi-mediated Engase1p down regulation delays fOSGN2-to-fOSGN conversion, and it is shown that Engase1p and Man2c1p are necessary for efficient clearance of cytosolic fOS into lysosomes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not possess ENGase activity and expression of human Engase1p in the png1Δ deletion mutant, in which fOS are reduced by over 98%, partially restored fOS generation. In metabolically radiolabeled HepG2 cells evidence was obtained for a small but significant Engase1p-mediated generation of fOS in 1 h chase but not 30 min pulse incubations. Ngly1p down regulation revealed an Ngly1p-independent fOSGN2 pool comprising mainly Man8GlcNAc2, corresponding to, ~70% of total fOS, and an Ngly1p-dependent fOSGN2 pool enriched in Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 and Man9GlcNAc2 that corresponds to, ~30% of total fOS. Conclusions/Significance: As the generation of the bulk of fOS is unaffected by co-down regulation of Ngly1p and Engase1p, alternative quantitatively important mechanisms must underlie the liberation of these fOS from either LLO or glycoproteins during protein N-glycosylation. The fully mannosylated structures that occur in the Ngly1p-dependent fOSGN2 pool indicate an ERAD process that does not require N-glycan trimming. © 2010 Chantret et al.

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