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There is paucity of information on quality feedstuffs for snail production in Nigeria. One hundred and eighty snailets (Archachatina marginata) of an average weight of 3.55±1.10 g were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments of pawpaw leaves (PL), whole lettuce (WL), lettuce wastes (LW) and cabbage wastes (CW). Each treatment consisted of 3 replicates of 15 snailets per replicate in a completely randomized design. The diets were fed ad libitum for 20 weeks. The study investigated the performance, carcass analysis and sensory evaluation of cooked meat of the snailets fed the experimental diets. The body weight gain, feed intake, dressing percentage, shell length and shell thickness gain of snailets on WL, LW and CW were similar, higher and significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of snailets fed PL. The result of the sensory evaluation revealed that the dietary treatments had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the colour, taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability of the snail meat. On the whole, the study established that snailets of A. marginata could utilize lettuce waste as well as cabbage as sole feed ingredient to increase animal protein supply in Nigeria. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Hornig-Do H.T.,Northumbria University | Hornig-Do H.T.,University of Cologne | Montanari A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rozanska A.,Northumbria University | And 8 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Disorders of the mitochondrial genome cause a wide spectrum of disease, these present mainly as neurological and/or muscle related pathologies. Due to the intractability of the human mitochondrial genome there are currently no effective treatments for these disorders. The majority of the pathogenic mutations lie in the genes encoding mitochondrial tRNAs. Consequently, the biochemical deficiency is due to mitochondrial protein synthesis defects, which manifest as aberrant cellular respiration and ATP synthesis. It has previously been reported that overexpression of mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases has been effective, in cell lines, at partially suppressing the defects resulting from mutations in their cognate mt-tRNAs. We now show that leucyl tRNA synthetase is able to partially rescue defects caused by mutations in non-cognate mt-tRNAs. Further, a C terminal peptide alone can enter mitochondria and interact with the same spectrum of mt-tRNAs as the entire synthetase, in intact cells. These data support the possibility that a small peptide could correct at least the biochemical defect associated with many mt-tRNA mutations, inferring a novel therapy for these disorders. © 2014 The Authors.

This study assessed the nutrient, phytoconstituent, minerals, Zn bioavailability and antioxidant properties of mucilage extracted from Okra, Water leaf and Jews mallow. The protein in the mucilage of these vegetables was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in water leaf (54.30%) than Jews mallow (44.80%) and okra (20.30%). Jews mallow had the highest fiber content (8.25%) and okra the lowest (2.00%). The calculated [Ca][phytate] / [Zn] molar ratios for the mucilage of water leaf (0.59) and Jews mallow (1.51) were clearly above the critical level of 0.5 mol / kg while that of the mucilage of okra (0.14) was below 0.5 mol / kg. The vitamin C content ranged from 5.00 mg AAE/g in okra to 10.25 mg AAE/g in water leaf. The result revealed that okra mucilage had a significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) total phenol and reducing power than that of the mucilage of water leaf and Jews mallow. At the concentration of 100 and 300mg/ml, okra mucilage had the highest DPPH radical scavenging ability of 23.04% and 40.40% and the lowest OH radical scavenging ability of 13.16% and 59.03%. The mucilage of these vegetables could prevent protein malnutrition and serve as a natural antioxidant. © All Rights Reserved.

De Marco A.,Biochemistry Unit
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Molecular chaperones and chemical compounds like amino acids and osmolytes share the capability to prevent protein aggregation and can contribute to rescue in vivo aggregated proteins. Therefore, both overexpression of the molecular folding machinery and induced accumulation of chemical chaperones are options to improve the correct folding of recombinantly expressed proteins. These two parameters may show synergistic effects, although success remains protein specific and, therefore, several combinations of molecular and chemical chaperones should be compared. However, proteins can fail to fold correctly even in optimized culture conditions. In this case, protein aggregates can be recovered and their refolding assisted by an osmolyte/chaperone-dependent system. The selection of aggregates with different degrees of complexity can be exploited to maximize the yields of native proteins at the end of the refolding process. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Davit-Spraul A.,Biochemistry Unit | Fabre M.,Pathology Unit | Fabre M.,University Paris - Sud | Branchereau S.,Pediatric Surgery Unit | And 10 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) types 1 and 2 are characterized by normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity and are due to mutations in ATP8B1 (encoding FIC1) and ABCB11 (encoding bile salt export pump [BSEP]), respectively. Our goal was to evaluate the features that may distinguish PFIC1 from PFIC2 and ease their diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of 62 children with normal-GGT PFIC in whom a search for ATP8B1 and/or ABCB11 mutation, liver BSEP immunostaining, and/or bile analysis were performed. Based on genetic testing, 13 patients were PFIC1 and 39 PFIC2. The PFIC origin remained unknown in 10 cases. PFIC2 patients had a higher tendency to develop neonatal cholestasis. High serum alanine aminotransferase and alphafetoprotein levels, severe lobular lesions with giant hepatocytes, early liver failure, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular carcinoma, very low biliary bile acid concentration, and negative BSEP canalicular staining suggest PFIC2, whereas an absence of these signs and/or presence of extrahepatic manifestations suggest PFIC1. The PFIC1 and PFIC2 phenotypes were not clearly correlated with mutation types, but we found tendencies for a better prognosis and response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or biliary diversion (BD) in a few children with missense mutations. Combination of UDCA, BD, and liver transplantation allowed 87% of normal-GGT PFIC patients to be alive at a median age of 10.5 years (1-36), half of them without liver transplantation. Conclusion: PFIC1 and PFIC2 differ clinically, biochemically, and histologically at presentation and/or during the disease course. A small proportion of normal-GGT PFIC is likely not due to ATP8B1 or ABCB11 mutations. Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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