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Sfax, Tunisia

Candi E.,Biochemistry Laboratory
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that suppress the expression of protein-coding genes by repressing protein translation. Although the roles that miRs and the miR processing machinery have in regulating epithelial stem cell biology are not fully understood, their fundamental contributions to these processes have been demonstrated over the last few years. The p53-family member p63 is an essential transcription factor for epidermal morphogenesis and homeostasis. p63 functions as a determinant for keratinocyte cell fate and helps to regulate the balance between stemness, differentiation and senescence. An important factor that regulates p63 function is the reciprocal interaction between p63 and miRs. Some miRs control p63 expression, and p63 regulates the miR expression profile in the epidermis. p63 controls miR expression at different levels. It directly regulates the transcription of several miRs and indirectly regulates their processing by regulating the expression of the miR processing components Dicer and DGCR8. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings on the miR-p63 interaction in epidermal biology, particularly focusing on the ΔNp63-dependent regulation of DGCR8 recently described in the ΔNp63-/- mouse. We provide a unified view of the current knowledge and discuss the apparent discrepancies and perspective therapeutic opportunities.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 29 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.113. Source

Page A.-L.,Epidemiology and Population Health | De Rekeneire N.,Epidemiology and Population Health | Sayadi S.,Epidemiology and Population Health | Aberrane S.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of bacterial infections is crucial for their proper management, but is particularly difficult in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) for diagnosing bacterial infections and assessing the prognosis of hospitalized children with SAM, and to determine the reliability of CRP and PCT rapid tests suitable for remote settings. METHODS: From November 2007 to July 2008, we prospectively recruited 311 children aged 6 to 59 months hospitalized with SAM plus a medical complication in Maradi, Niger. Blood, urine, and stool cultures and chest radiography were performed systematically on admission. CRP and PCT were measured by rapid tests and by reference quantitative methods using frozen serum sent to a reference laboratory. RESULTS: Median CRP and PCT levels were higher in children with bacteremia or pneumonia than in those with no proven bacterial infection (P < .002). However, both markers performed poorly in identifying invasive bacterial infection, with areas under the curve of 0.64 and 0.67 before and after excluding children with malaria, respectively. At a threshold of 40 mg/L, CRP was the best predictor of death (81% sensitivity, 58% specificity). Rapid test results were consistent with those from reference methods. CONCLUSIONS: CRP and PCT are not sufficiently accurate for diagnosing invasive bacterial infections in this population of hospitalized children with complicated SAM. However, a rapid CRP test could be useful in these settings to identify children most at risk for dying. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

White G.,Biochemistry Laboratory
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of undetected potassium EDTA contamination in routine blood samples submitted for biochemical analysis. Methods: Over a seven-day period, serum EDTA concentrations were measured in all blood samples submitted for routine biochemical analysis. Results: EDTA contamination was detected in 22 of 4789 samples submitted for analysis (0.46%), of which only seven (0.15%) would have been detected by staff using subjective methods. Detection of low but significant concentrations of EDTA was not necessarily associated with hyperkalaemia or hypocalcaemia. Haemolysis remains the leading cause of non-reporting of analyte results. Conclusion: The presence of EDTA in serum does not always result in spurious hyperkalaemia or hypocalcaemia. Routine measurement of serum EDTA concentrations has the potential to reveal contamination which is not obvious using subjective measures and its routine measurement has the potential to identify minimally contaminated samples. Source

Michelis R.,Eliachar Research Laboratory | Kristal B.,Western Galilee Hospital | Snitkovsky T.,Biochemistry Laboratory | Sela S.,Eliachar Research Laboratory
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Background: Hypoalbuminemia is a measure of malnutrition, inflammation and a predictor of mortality in uremia. It is controversial whether albumin levels per se are associated with the clinical outcomes in uremic patients. The co-occurrence of hypoalbuminemia and oxidative stress in hemodialysis (HD) patients led us to hypothesize that oxidative modifications of albumin decrease its detection and influence albumin quantification. Methods: Albumin levels are determined in clinical laboratories mainly by the bromocresol green (BCG) spectrophotometric assay. The detection of serum albumin was investigated in HD patients and in healthy controls using an " albumin-detection index" , defined as the ratio between BCG read-out (albumin-specific) to total albumin. The detection efficacy of albumin was also investigated in vitro, after glycoxidation, HOCl-mediated-oxidation, and metal-catalyzed-oxidation. Oncotic pressure was measured to assess albumin function. Results: The albumin-detection index of patients was significantly lower compared with controls, correlating negatively with oxidative stress markers (serum advanced oxidation protein products-AOPP and glycoxidized serum albumin) and positively with serum albumin levels. The albumin-detection index was also decreased after in vitro oxidation. Conclusions: The study shows, both in vivo and in vitro, decreased detection of oxidized albumin by a commonly-used clinical assay, thus providing the molecular link between oxidative stress and hypoalbuminemia. Oxidative stress as reflected by hypoalbuminemia, rather than actual albumin levels, may be related to cardiovascular morbidity outcomes in HD patient. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Katoch R.,Biochemistry Laboratory
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2014

In the present study, the major incriminating factors were evaluated in rice bean seeds and different processing treatments for their minimization were studied. Among the flatulence causing oligosaccharides the raffinose, stachyose and verbascose contents varied from 2.06g/100g (IC-137194) to 2.84 g/100g (JCR-163), 0.86 (IC-137194) to 1.64 g/100g (JCR-152) and 2.78 g/100g (JCR-178) to 3.33 g/100g (IC-137194), respectively. Lipoxygenase activity (LOX) in rice bean genotypes varied from 732 units/mg (BRS-2) to 820 units/mg (JCR-20) whereas, saponin content varied from 1.2 mg/100g (IC-137194) to 2.5 mg/100g (JCR-163). Different treatments were applied for the reduction of antinutrients in rice bean seeds, among which germination (48h) followed by cooking (30min) was the most effective, whereas roasting for 10 min at 100OC was least effective treatment. The maximum reduction of antinutritient content was observed in genotype IC-140802. The least response to the treatments was observed in genotype JCR-178. These results of the study provide the best option for reducing the levels of incriminating factors in rice bean before routine consumption. © 2014, Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists. All rights reserved. Source

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