Storelli M.M.,Chemistry and Biochemistry Section |
Barone G.,Chemistry and Biochemistry Section |
Giacominelli-Stuffler R.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section |
Marcotrigiano G.O.,Chemistry and Biochemistry Section
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and monoortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Crinelli R.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section |
Carloni E.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section |
Menotta M.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section |
Giacomini E.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section |
And 4 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2010
Oligonucleotide (ODN) decoys are synthetic ODNs containing the DNA binding sequence of a transcription factor. When delivered to cells, these molecules can compete with endogenous sequences for binding the transcription factor, thus inhibiting its ability to activate the expression of target genes. Modulation of gene expression by decoy ODNs against nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor regulating many genes involved in immunity, has been achieved in a variety of immune/inflammatory disorders. However, the successful use of transcription factor decoys depends on an efficient means to bring the synthetic DNA to target cells. It is known that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), under certain conditions, are able to cross the cell membrane. Thus, we have evaluated the possibility to functionalize SWCNTs with decoy ODNs against NF-κB in order to improve their intracellular delivery. To couple ODNs to CNTs, we have exploited the carbodiimide chemistry which allows covalent binding of amino-modified ODNs to carboxyl groups introduced onto SWCNTs through oxidation. The effective binding of ODNs to nanotubes has been demonstrated by a combination of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrophoretic techniques. The uptake and subcellular distribution of ODN decoys bound to SWCNTs was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ODNs were internalized into macrophages and accumulated in the cytosol. Moreover, no cytotoxicity associated with SWCNT administration was observed. Finally, NF-κB-dependent gene expression was significantly reduced in cells receiving nanomolar concentrations of SWCNT-NF-κB decoys compared to cells receiving SWCNTs or SWCNTs functionalized with a nonspecific ODN sequence, demonstrating both efficacy and specificity of the approach. © 2010 American Chemical Society.