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Lichtenstein N.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Bernards M.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Quellmalz K.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Dettbarn G.,Biochemisches Institute For Umweltcarcinogene | And 3 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

Lubricating oils and greases tend to age, particularly at elevated temperatures and in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Antioxidants are therefore added to them. Among other substances, N-phenyl1-naphthylamine and N-phenyl-2-napthylamlne used to be employed for this purpose, as is documented by various formulations used in former East Germany. Due to the production process, N-phenyl-2-naph-thylamine was contaminated with 2-naphthylamine on the scale of 1,000 mg/kg (1960) to 3 mg/kg (from 1980). Since 2-naphthylamine is a human carcinogen and lubricating greases were and still are widespread in craft firms and industry, an occupational cause is often suspected In cases of cancer of the bladder. So far, no information on 2-naphthylamine in lubricating greases has been available from manufacturers or in the literature. Employees of the measuring service of the social accident insurance institution for the wood- and metalworking industries and other social accident Insurance institutions have therefore collected samples of older lubricating greases on visits to companies, which have been analysed for their content of N-phenyl-2-naph-thylamine and 2-naphthylamine in a study programme carried out by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA).


Lichtenstein N.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Buchwald K.-E.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Hennig M.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Bernards M.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | And 8 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2011

Up until the Nineteen Sixties in some cases, bonding compounds made of coal tar products were used by roofers to waterproof flat roofs. These contained aromatic amines and particularly 2-naphthylamine, a human carcinogen capable of causing cancer of the bladder. In investigation proceedings for occupational diseases, the question of the extent of roofer exposure to these substances frequently arises. No results of exposure measurements of aromatic amines are available from the period in question, however. At the instigation of the accident insurance institutions, the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) has therefore replicated such work processes and carried out exposure measurements. The project and results are presented in this article. The concentrations of 2-naphthylamine during bonding work with roofing felt and hot tar bonding compound range from 0.74 to 1.9 μg/m3. Concentrations of 5.9 to 8.8 μg/m3 were measured at the tar boiler. This is the first time that it has been possible to retrospectively estimate roofers' exposure to aromatic amines.


Schwarz M.A.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe | Behnke A.,Biochemisches Institute For Umweltcarcinogene | Brandt M.,Umweltbundesamt | Eisentrager A.,Biochemisches Institute For Umweltcarcinogene | And 3 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2014

Semipolar polycyclic aromatic compounds (sPACs) are frequently found in association with homocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological materials (UVCBs) from coal or crude oil and products derived thereof. However, major information deficiencies exist with regard to their prevalence and their toxicological and ecotoxicological potential, persistency, and bioaccumulation characteristics. Therefore, in this work, the environmental concern and relevance of sPACs was addressed in a general, stepwise approach. First, a large list of sPACs was collected and subsequently refined by assessing their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) properties by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods and their relevance by determining their respective frequency of occurrence. In this way, 15 priority sPACs were identified. These 15 priority sPACs were further characterized in detail with respect to their ecotoxicological properties, environmental behavior, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity attributes. All of these 15 substances were quantified in distillate or product samples. In the next step, some principles for nomination of indicator substances, indicative for the overall content of sPACs, are derived. Data gaps on ecotoxicological endpoints preclude final conclusions, but the respective necessary supplemental tests were identified. Five of the 15 sPACs were tentatively characterized as potential substances of very high concern (SVHC) for the environment. The overall results of this study also clearly show that regulatory risk management of homocyclic PAHs within the European Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) does not address the environmental concern created by sPACs within UVCBs from coal or crude oil. The study proves the need for additional regulatory steps under REACH and suggests indicator substances for their enforcement. © 2014 SETAC.


PubMed | Biochemisches Institute For Umweltcarcinogene
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and pharmacology | Year: 2011

V79 Chinese hamster cells genetically engineered for rat cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 2B1 and human cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4 are being applied in metabolism studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This study presents the results on phenanthrene as the prototypic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon possessing a bay region. Phenanthrene is of less importance regarding cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity as compared to e.g. benzo[a]pyrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. However, phenanthrene is more readily converted to metabolites which are exreted in higher amounts than those from any other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Therefore, its metabolites are of diagnostic value in epidemiological and occupational exposure studies. For this reason, it is worthwhile to understand the metabolism of phenanthrene in detail, e.g. allocating metabolites and cytochromes P450s. In accordance to previous observations cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 were the most active forms towards phenanthrene. However, metabolite profiles differed between rat and human homologues of cytochromes P450, in particular for cytochrome P450 1A2. The predominant metabolite formed by rat cytochrome P450 1A2 was the K region trans-9,10-dihydrodiol, whereas human cytochrome P450 1A2 produced similar amounts of the trans-1,2-, trans-3,4- and trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. High amounts of trans-1,2-dihydrodiol, the metabolic precursor of the bay-region dihydrodiol epoxide, were also formed by human cytochrome P450 1A1 compared to its rat homologue. Unexpectedly, human cytochrome P450 2E1 showed a remarkable catalytic activity to metabolize phenanthrene to its trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Utilizing recombinant CYPs in live V79 cells appears to be a valuable too yielding results important for the evaluation of exposure data and risk assessment for humans.

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