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Monien B.H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Engst W.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Barknowitz G.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Seidel A.,Biochemical Institute for Environmental Carcinogens | Glatt H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2012

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a heterocyclic product of the Maillard reaction, is a ubiquitous food contaminant. It has demonstrated hepatocarcinogenic activity in female mice. This effect may originate from sulfo conjugation of the benzylic alcohol yielding 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF), which is prone to react with DNA via nucleophilic substitution. Indeed, we showed that HMF induces gene mutations in Chinese hamster V79 cells engineered for the expression of human (h) sulfotransferase (SULT)1A1 but not in parental V79 cells. In order to identify potential DNA adducts, we incubated DNA samples with SMF or HMF in aqueous solution. Modified DNA was digested and surveyed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for adducts that may be formed by nucleosides either via nucleophilic substitution at the electrophilic carbon atom of SMF or via imine formation with the aldehyde group present in HMF and SMF. The most abundant adducts formed from SMF, N 6-((2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (N 6-FFM-dAdo) and N2-((2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl)-2′- deoxyguanosine (N2-FFM-dGuo), were synthesized, purified, and characterized by 1H NMR. Imine adducts were only detected when DNA was incubated with very high levels of HMF following reduction of the imines to corresponding secondary amines by NaBH3CN. Sensitive techniques based on LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring for the quantification of the adducts in DNA samples were devised using isotope-labeled [15N 5]N6-FFM-dAdo and [13C10, 15N5]N2-FFM-dGuo as internal standards. Both 5-methylfurfuryl adducts were detected in DNA from V79-hSULT1A1 treated with HMF but not in DNA from V79 control cells. Considering the lack of other known mutagenic metabolites, we hypothesize that the hepatocarcinogenic potential of HMF originates from the formation of mutagenic SMF. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Schumacher F.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Florian S.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Schnapper A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Schnapper A.,Hannover Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2014

1-Methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (1-MIM) glucosinolate, a secondary metabolite of Brassicales species, and its breakdown product 1-MIM alcohol are mutagenic in cells in culture after activation by plant β-thioglucosidase and human sulphotransferase, respectively. In the present study, we administered these compounds orally to mice to study time course, dose dependence, tissue distribution and cellular localization of the 1-MIM DNA adducts formed. We used isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the adducts and raised an antiserum for their immunohistochemical localization. Both compounds formed the same adducts, N 2-(1-MIM)-2′-deoxyguanosine and N 6-(1-MIM)- 2′-deoxyadenosine, approximately in a 3.3:1 ratio. 1-MIM glucosinolate primarily formed these adducts in the large intestine, with a luminal-basal gradient, probably due to activation by thioglucosidase from intestinal bacteria. 1-MIM alcohol formed higher levels of adduct than the glucosinolate. Unlike after treatment with the glucosinolate, luminal and basal enterocytes were similarly affected in caecum, and liver and stomach were additional important target tissues. Maximal adduct levels were reached 8 h after the administration of both compounds. The hepatic DNA adducts persisted for the entire observation period (48 h), whereas those in large intestine rapidly declined due to cell turnover, as verified by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic adduct formation was focused on the periportal hepatocytes with concomitant depletion of glycogen, p53 activation and p21 induction. Adduct formation in caecum was associated with massive apoptosis, p53 activation and p21 induction, in particular after treatment with 1-MIM alcohol. It remains to be studied whether similar effects occur in humans after the consumption of Brassicales species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gminski R.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Decker K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Heinz C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Seidel A.,Biochemical Institute for Environmental Carcinogens | And 6 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

Until now, the adverse effects of toner powders on humans have been considered to be minimal. However, several recent reports have suggested possible significant adverse health effects from toner dust inhalation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of black toner powders in vitro. For the study of DNA damage, A549 cells were exposed to toner-powder suspensions and to their DMSO extracts, and then subjected to the comet assay and to the in-vitro cytokinesis block micronucleus test (CB-MNvit). Cytotoxic effects of the toner samples were assessed by the erythrosin B assay. Furthermore, size, shape, and composition of the toner powders were investigated. None of the three toner powders or their DMSO extracts reduced cell viability; however, they did induce DNA damage and formed micronuclei at concentrations from 80 to 400 μg cm -2, although to a varying extent. All toner powders contain considerable amounts of the pigments carbon black and magnetite (Fe 3O 4) as well as small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall results of our in-vitro study suggest that the investigated toner-powder samples are not cytotoxic but genotoxic. From the results of the physical and chemical characterization, we conclude that metals and metalloids as components of magnetite, or PAHs as components of the carbon-bearing material, are responsible for the genotoxic effects. Further research is necessary to determine the relevance of these in-vitro observations for private and occupational toner powder exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Westberg E.,University of Stockholm | Hedebrant U.,University of Stockholm | Haglund J.,University of Stockholm | Haglund J.,MetaSafe AB Biovation Park Telge | And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Stable adducts to serum albumin (SA) from electrophilic and genotoxic compounds/metabolites can be used as biomarkers for quantification of the corresponding in vivo dose. In the present study, conditions for specific analysis of stable adducts to SA formed from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were evaluated in order to achieve a sensitive and reproducible quantitative method. Bulky adducts from diolepoxides (DE) of PAH, primarily DE of benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and also DE of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBPDE) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBADE), were used as model compounds. The alkylated peptides obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of human SA modified with the different PAHDE were principally PAHDE-His-Pro, PAHDE-His-Pro-Tyr and PAHDE-Lys. Alkaline hydrolysis under optimised conditions gave the BPDE-His as the single analyte of alkylated His, but also indicated degradation of this adduct. It was not possible to obtain the BPDE-His as one analyte from BPDE-alkylated SA through modifications of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The BPDE-His adduct was shown to be stable during the weak acidic conditions used in the isolation of SA. Enrichment by HPLC or SPE, but not butanol extraction, gave good recovery, using Protein LoBind tubes. A simple internal standard (IS) approach using SA modified with other PAHDE as IS was shown to be applicable. A robust analytical procedure based on digestion with pronase, enrichment by HPLC or SPE, and analysis with HPLC/MS-MS electrospray ionisation was achieved. A good reproducibility (coefficient of variation (CV) 11 %) was obtained, and the achieved limit of detection for the studied PAHDE, using standard instrumentation, was approximately 1 fmol adduct/mg SA analysing extract from 5 mg SA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Schumacher F.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Engst W.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Monien B.H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Florian S.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 6 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

1-Methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (1-MIM) glucosinolate, present at substantial levels in several food crops (e.g., broccoli and cabbage), forms DNA adducts in vitro and is mutagenic to bacterial and mammalian cells after activation by the plant enzyme myrosinase. Moreover, a breakdown product, 1-MIM alcohol, is metabolized to a secondary reactive intermediate by some mammalian sulfotransferases (SULTs). First, we incubated herring-sperm DNA with 1-MIM glucosinolate in the presence of myrosinase. We identified and synthesized the predominant adducts, N2-(1-MIM)-dG and N6-(1-MIM)-dA, and developed an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for their specific detection using isotopic dilution. Second, we demonstrated both DNA adducts in target cells (Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and Chinese hamster V79) of standard mutagenicity tests treated with 1-MIM glucosinolate/myrosinase as well as in 1-MIM alcohol-treated Salmonella and V79 cells engineered for expression of human SULT1A1. Similar excesses of N2-(1-MIM)-dG over N6-(1-MIM)-dA adducts were found in all cellular models independent of the test compound (1-MIM glucosinolate or alcohol), whereas dA adducts predominated in the cell-free system. Finally, we detected both DNA adducts in colon tissue of a mouse orally treated with 1-MIM glucosinolate. We are going to use this specific and sensitive method for investigating genotoxic risks of food-borne exposure to 1-MIM glucosinolate in animal and human studies. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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