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Linz, Austria

Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Pinter M.,University of Graz | Ali S.S.,University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Plant Ecology and Evolution

Background - Whereas subfamily Oziroeoideae of the petaloid monocot family Hyacinthaceae is restricted to South America, the three other subfamilies, Ornithogaloideae, Urgineoideae and Hyacinthoideae, have much larger primary distribution areas spanning the Mediterranean and Central Europe, Arabian Peninsula, Indian subcontinent, Far East (China and Japan) and Africa, with some members also in Madagascar. Based mainly on morphology, until recently, most of the Malagasy species have been included in genera found also outside this island. Morphological characters alone have been misleading in many cases, resulting in erroneous generic classifications. Method - Analysis of plastid DNA sequences was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among members of old world Hyacinthaceae. Key results - Phylogenetic analysis based on multiple plastid DNA markers has changed our views substantially, leaving many of the Malagasy Hyacinthaceae taxa as monophyletic groups. All Malagasy members of Urgineoideae form a well-supported clade (Rhodocodon/Drimia cryptopoda) pointing to a single colonization from continental Africa. Drimia cryptopoda is a morphologically deviant species previously misplaced in Hyacinthus. The Urgineoideae from India do not appear to be directly related to African or Malagasy species, but show close relationships to the Mediterranean Urginea s. str. Two members of Hyacinthoideae are present in Madagascar. One of them, Ledebouria sp. ined., is related to South African species, whereas the other, L. nossibeensis, shows strong relationships to L. hyacinthina from India and to L. grandifolia from Socotra. Dipcadi (Ornithogaloideae) forms a well-supported monophyletic clade. Conclusion - We presume a single colonization from mainland Africa followed by rapid radiation in different habitats in Madagascar. The close relationship of Indian Dipcadi with those of the Mediterranean points to a Northern Hemisphere migration route linking India and the Mediterranean and possibly involving also the Arabian Peninsula. © 2012 National Botanic Garden of Belgium and Royal Botanical Society of Belgium. Source

Peschel W.,European Medicines Agency | Kump A.,Biocenter Linz | Horvath A.,University of Szeged | Csupor D.,University of Szeged
Industrial Crops and Products

Characteristic phenylpropenoids are a quality marker to distinguish rhizome and root of authentic Rhodiola rosea L. from other Rhodiola species. A consistent content in line with pharmacopoeial requirements is one objective of increasing cultivation to satisfy the worldwide demand. We set out to compare the influence of harvest season and age on total rosavins (ROStot) and their aglycon cinnamyl alcohol (CA) determined by HPLC/DAD. Plants from 9 different European origins were grown homogenously in South England and harvested in March, August and November of cultivation years 3-5. For experiment optimisation and validation we initially studied other factors that influence the chemical profile: sample origin (plants, herbal drugs and final products of different origin), plant part (rhizome, root, herb), drying (temperature and duration), extraction (solvent strength). We also investigated differences between plant individuals of the same provenance such as male and female plants.Pre-tests showed the importance of confirmed plant identity as non-authentic samples are indicated by total and relative amounts of phenylpropenoids vis-a-vis phenylethanoids. Rhizomes contained 2-3 times higher ROStot values than roots. There was no substantial influence of drying temperature (45 °C versus 65 °C), but drying at room temperature longer than 10 days influenced negatively phenylpropenoid values. ROStot are best extracted with 70-90% ethanol; CA with 50-70% ethanol. No significant influence of plant sex on the phenylpropenoid content was detected.Extracts (70% ethanol) from R. rosea rhizomes contained 0.5-4.1 mg/mL total rosavins corresponding to 0.31-2.6% in the dry drug. Across all provenances the ROStot and to less extent the CA content in rhizomes was significantly higher when harvested in March than in August or November alongside a decrease from year 3 to year 5 under our cultivation conditions. The CA content was 5-30% of ROStot with some influence of the plant origin and may be considered for drug identification and standardisation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Brudermann A.,University of Graz | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Wetschnig W.,University of Graz

Rhodocodon jackyi is here described as a new species related to R. urgineoides, they both belonging to Rhodocodon subg. Urgineopsis. The new species shows a distinct syndrome of morphological characters, such as the deciduous, large, spirally arranged, synanthous leaves; the multiflowered, lax, secund raceme; flower pedicels 12‒22 mm long; and white, campanulate, nodding flowers. Moreover, R. jackyi shows a distinct ecology and biogeography. © 2016 Magnolia Press. Source

Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Wetschnig W.,University of Graz

The genus Rhodocodo3n is here reinstated based on morphological, biogeographical and molecular evidence. On the basis of the work presented by H. Perrier de la Bâthie in Flora of Madagascar, one subgenus and ten species of Rhodocodon are validated here. Furthermore, Rhodocodon madagascariensis and R. urgineoides are lectotypified, and Hyacinthus cryptopodus and Urginea mascarenensis are transferred to Rhodocodon. A complete morphological description for all 13 accepted species of Rhodocodon is provided, including data on biology, ecology and distribution. Furthermore, an identification key for the Rhodocodon species is presented. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Wetschnig W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Pinter M.,University of Graz | And 5 more authors.

As part of a taxonomic revision of the genus Massonia, a new species, M. saniensis is here described from lesotho (southern africa). this species is at first sight similar to both M. wittebergensis and M. jasminiflora, but it differs in vegetative, floral, and molecular characters as well as by its distribution. a complete morphological description of the new species and data on biology, habitat, and distribution are presented. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

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