Biocenter Linz

Linz, Austria

Biocenter Linz

Linz, Austria
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Ali S.S.,University of Graz | Ali S.S.,Biocenter Linz | Ali S.S.,University of Swat | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Disjunct distribution patterns in plant lineages are usually explained according to three hypotheses: vicariance, geodispersal, and long-distance dispersal. The role of these hypotheses is tested in Urgineoideae (Hyacinthaceae), a subfamily disjunctly distributed in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Mediterranean region. The potential ancestral range, dispersal routes, and factors responsible for the current distribution in Urgineoideae are investigated using divergence time estimations. Urgineoideae originated in Southern Africa approximately 48.9 Mya. Two independent dispersal events in the Western Mediterranean region possibly occurred during Early Oligocene and Miocene (29.9-8.5 Mya) via Eastern and Northwestern Africa. A dispersal from Northwestern Africa to India could have occurred between 16.3 and 7.6 Mya. Vicariance and extinction events occurred approximately 21.6 Mya. Colonization of Madagascar occurred between 30.6 and 16.6 Mya, after a single transoceanic dispersal event from Southern Africa. The current disjunct distributions of Urgineoideae are not satisfactorily explained by Gondwana fragmentation or dispersal via boreotropical forests, due to the younger divergence time estimates. The flattened winged seeds of Urgineoideae could have played an important role in long-distance dispersal by strong winds and big storms, whereas geodispersal could have also occurred from Southern Africa to Asia and the Mediterranean region via the so-called arid and high-altitude corridors. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Ali S.S.,University of Graz | Ali S.S.,Biocenter Linz | Yu Y.,Sichuan University | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Wetschnig W.,University of Graz
Annals of Botany | Year: 2012

•Background and Aims: Subfamily Hyacinthoideae (Hyacinthaceae) comprises more than 400 species. Members are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, India, eastern Asia, the Mediterranean region and Eurasia. Hyacinthoideae, like many other plant lineages, show disjunct distribution patterns. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Hyacinthoideae based on phylogenetic analyses, to find the possible ancestral range of Hyacinthoideae and to identify factors responsible for the current disjunct distribution pattern.•Methods: Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees, based on sequences of the trnL-F region. Biogeographical inferences were obtained by applying statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) and Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis implemented in RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies).•Key Results: S-DIVA and BBM analyses suggest that the Hyacinthoideae clade seem to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa. Dispersal and vicariance played vital roles in creating the disjunct distribution pattern. Results also suggest an early dispersal to the Mediterranean region, and thus the northward route (from sub-Saharan Africa to Mediterranean) of dispersal is plausible for members of subfamily Hyacinthoideae.•Conclusions: Biogeographical analyses reveal that subfamily Hyacinthoideae has originated in sub-Saharan Africa. S-DIVA indicates an early dispersal event to the Mediterranean region followed by a vicariance event, which resulted in Hyacintheae and Massonieae tribes. By contrast, BBM analysis favours dispersal to the Mediterranean region, eastern Asia and Europe. Biogeographical analysis suggests that sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean region have played vital roles as centres of diversification and radiation within subfamily Hyacinthoideae. In this bimodal distribution pattern, sub-Saharan Africa is the primary centre of diversity and the Mediterranean region is the secondary centre of diversity. Sub-Saharan Africa was the source area for radiation toward Madagascar, the Mediterranean region and India. Radiations occurred from the Mediterranean region to eastern Asia, Europe, western Asia and India. © The Author 2011.

Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Wetschnig W.,University of Graz
Phytotaxa | Year: 2015

The genus Rhodocodo3n is here reinstated based on morphological, biogeographical and molecular evidence. On the basis of the work presented by H. Perrier de la Bâthie in Flora of Madagascar, one subgenus and ten species of Rhodocodon are validated here. Furthermore, Rhodocodon madagascariensis and R. urgineoides are lectotypified, and Hyacinthus cryptopodus and Urginea mascarenensis are transferred to Rhodocodon. A complete morphological description for all 13 accepted species of Rhodocodon is provided, including data on biology, ecology and distribution. Furthermore, an identification key for the Rhodocodon species is presented. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Pinter M.,University of Graz | Ali S.S.,University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Plant Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Background - Whereas subfamily Oziroeoideae of the petaloid monocot family Hyacinthaceae is restricted to South America, the three other subfamilies, Ornithogaloideae, Urgineoideae and Hyacinthoideae, have much larger primary distribution areas spanning the Mediterranean and Central Europe, Arabian Peninsula, Indian subcontinent, Far East (China and Japan) and Africa, with some members also in Madagascar. Based mainly on morphology, until recently, most of the Malagasy species have been included in genera found also outside this island. Morphological characters alone have been misleading in many cases, resulting in erroneous generic classifications. Method - Analysis of plastid DNA sequences was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among members of old world Hyacinthaceae. Key results - Phylogenetic analysis based on multiple plastid DNA markers has changed our views substantially, leaving many of the Malagasy Hyacinthaceae taxa as monophyletic groups. All Malagasy members of Urgineoideae form a well-supported clade (Rhodocodon/Drimia cryptopoda) pointing to a single colonization from continental Africa. Drimia cryptopoda is a morphologically deviant species previously misplaced in Hyacinthus. The Urgineoideae from India do not appear to be directly related to African or Malagasy species, but show close relationships to the Mediterranean Urginea s. str. Two members of Hyacinthoideae are present in Madagascar. One of them, Ledebouria sp. ined., is related to South African species, whereas the other, L. nossibeensis, shows strong relationships to L. hyacinthina from India and to L. grandifolia from Socotra. Dipcadi (Ornithogaloideae) forms a well-supported monophyletic clade. Conclusion - We presume a single colonization from mainland Africa followed by rapid radiation in different habitats in Madagascar. The close relationship of Indian Dipcadi with those of the Mediterranean points to a Northern Hemisphere migration route linking India and the Mediterranean and possibly involving also the Arabian Peninsula. © 2012 National Botanic Garden of Belgium and Royal Botanical Society of Belgium.

Knirsch W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Brudermann A.,University of Graz | Pfosser M.,Biocenter Linz | Wetschnig W.,University of Graz
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016

Rhodocodon jackyi is here described as a new species related to R. urgineoides, they both belonging to Rhodocodon subg. Urgineopsis. The new species shows a distinct syndrome of morphological characters, such as the deciduous, large, spirally arranged, synanthous leaves; the multiflowered, lax, secund raceme; flower pedicels 12‒22 mm long; and white, campanulate, nodding flowers. Moreover, R. jackyi shows a distinct ecology and biogeography. © 2016 Magnolia Press.

Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Clark V.R.,Rhodes University | Pinter M.,University of Graz | And 5 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

As part of a taxonomic revision of the genus Massonia Houtt., a new species, Massonia dentata Mart.-Azorín, V.R.Clark, M.Pinter, M.B.Crespo & Wetschnig, is here described from the Nuweveldberge on South Africa's southern Great Escarpment. This new species is, at first sight, related to M. calvata Baker and M. echinata L.f., but it differs in floral and vegetative characters, such as the dentate perigone segments and bracts, leaves with numerous emergences, each bearing a thickened trichome, as well as in its ecology and distribution. A complete description of the new species and data on its biology, habitat, and distribution are presented. The close relative Massonia calvata Baker, an overlooked endemic from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism in South Africa, is lectotypified. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Wetschnig W.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Pinter M.,University of Graz | And 5 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

As part of a taxonomic revision of the genus Massonia, a new species, M. saniensis is here described from lesotho (southern africa). this species is at first sight similar to both M. wittebergensis and M. jasminiflora, but it differs in vegetative, floral, and molecular characters as well as by its distribution. a complete morphological description of the new species and data on biology, habitat, and distribution are presented. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Pinter M.,University of Graz | Deutsch G.,University of Graz | And 5 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014

As part of an ongoing study towards a taxonomic revision of the genus Massonia Houtt., a new species, Massonia amoena Mart.-Azorín, M.Pinter & Wetschnig, is here described from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This new species is characterized by the leaves bearing heterogeneous circular to elongate pustules and the strongly reflexed perigone segments at anthesis. It is at first sight related to Massonia jasminiflora Burch. ex Baker, M. wittebergensis U.Müll.-Doblies & D.Müll.-Doblies and M. saniensis Wetschnig, Mart.-Azorín & M.Pinter, but differs in vegetative and floral characters, as well as in its allopatric distribution. A complete morphological description of the new species and data on biology, habitat, and distribution are presented. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Alicante | Martinez-Azorin M.,University of Graz | Crespo M.B.,University of Alicante | Dold A.P.,Rhodes University | And 4 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

Within the framework of a taxonomic revision of subfamily Urgineoideae, we here describe a new genus from southeastern South Africa. Sagittanthera gen. nov. is at first sight related to Rhadamanthus and Tenicroa, but it can be clearly differentiated by the presence of bracteoles and the anthers connate to form a cone-like structure dehiscing by minute apical pores. This genus is based on Rhadamanthus cyanelloides, an enigmatic species occurring in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It was described on the basis of incomplete material. Recently, Drimia cremnophila and D. mzimvubuensis, two species that match the diagnostic characters of the new genus, were described from the same region. A complete description is presented for Sagittanthera, and data on morphology, ecology, and distribution are also reported. Two species are accepted in this genus, and the necessary combinations are stated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pollen is released by vibration. This fact together with morphological features of the androecium clearly evidence that buzz pollination occurs in this new genus. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Peschel W.,European Medicines Agency | Kump A.,Biocenter Linz | Horvath A.,University of Szeged | Csupor D.,University of Szeged
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Characteristic phenylpropenoids are a quality marker to distinguish rhizome and root of authentic Rhodiola rosea L. from other Rhodiola species. A consistent content in line with pharmacopoeial requirements is one objective of increasing cultivation to satisfy the worldwide demand. We set out to compare the influence of harvest season and age on total rosavins (ROStot) and their aglycon cinnamyl alcohol (CA) determined by HPLC/DAD. Plants from 9 different European origins were grown homogenously in South England and harvested in March, August and November of cultivation years 3-5. For experiment optimisation and validation we initially studied other factors that influence the chemical profile: sample origin (plants, herbal drugs and final products of different origin), plant part (rhizome, root, herb), drying (temperature and duration), extraction (solvent strength). We also investigated differences between plant individuals of the same provenance such as male and female plants.Pre-tests showed the importance of confirmed plant identity as non-authentic samples are indicated by total and relative amounts of phenylpropenoids vis-a-vis phenylethanoids. Rhizomes contained 2-3 times higher ROStot values than roots. There was no substantial influence of drying temperature (45 °C versus 65 °C), but drying at room temperature longer than 10 days influenced negatively phenylpropenoid values. ROStot are best extracted with 70-90% ethanol; CA with 50-70% ethanol. No significant influence of plant sex on the phenylpropenoid content was detected.Extracts (70% ethanol) from R. rosea rhizomes contained 0.5-4.1 mg/mL total rosavins corresponding to 0.31-2.6% in the dry drug. Across all provenances the ROStot and to less extent the CA content in rhizomes was significantly higher when harvested in March than in August or November alongside a decrease from year 3 to year 5 under our cultivation conditions. The CA content was 5-30% of ROStot with some influence of the plant origin and may be considered for drug identification and standardisation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

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