Kuopio, Finland
Kuopio, Finland

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Rytkonen J.,University of Eastern Finland | Rytkonen J.,Biocenter Kuopio | Miettinen R.,University of Eastern Finland | Miettinen R.,CN Services Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nanomaterials | Year: 2012

Carboxylic acid functionalized thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi-NP) were synthesized, and their opsonization and targeting properties were studied in vitro alongside with in vivo biodistribution. The carboxyl groups on UnTHCPSi were utilized to further functionalize the nanoparticles. In order to reduce the opsonization of the UnTHCPSi-NPs, different sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conjugated or adsorbed to the NPs surface. The latter approach, based on hydrophobic interaction, turned out to be more effective in reducing the opsonization and improving the stability of the nanoparticle suspension. The most abundant opsonins after plasma incubation were fibrinogen precursors and IgG. Furthermore, the targeting properties of UnTHCPSi-NPs were studied in vitro with antibodies against glutathione S-transferase (anti-GST). PEGylated NPs conjugated with anti-GST bound to GST-agarose in human plasma nearly 35-fold compared to control NPs, indicating that UnTHCPSi-NPs are suitable for targeting in physiological environment. The in vivo biodistribution in mice revealed that PEGylated UnTHCPSi-NPs, accumulate fast into the liver and the spleen, regardless of the reduced opsonization in vitro. However, autoradiography and transmission electron microscopy showed that majority of the NPs still remained in hepatic blood vessels and sinusoids suggesting a possibility to utilize them as a sustained release platform for payload molecules. © 2012 Jussi Rytkönen et al.


Tengstrom M.,Kuopio University Hospital | Tengstrom M.,Vaasa Central Hospital | Tengstrom M.,University of Eastern Finland | Mannermaa A.,University of Eastern Finland | And 12 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

The enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) defends against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) protein is involved in DNA repair. Polymorphisms in these genes have previously been associated with the outcome of breast cancer. Material and methods. Two gene polymorphisms, the MnSOD Val16Ala (rs4880A> G) and the XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181A> C), were analyzed in a cohort of 396 Finnish breast cancer patients by using PCR-RFLP-based methods in a prospective case-control study. The overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and relapse-free survival (RFS), assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis, were evaluated according to the adjuvant treatments and the rs4880 and rs13181 genotypes. Results. In the combined analysis of rs4880 and rs13181 genotypes for patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen (TAM) an increasing number of low-risk genotypes (rs4880 AA, rs4880 AG, or rs13181 AA) was significantly associated with better RFS, BCSS, and OS (n = 64). In addition, there was improved BCSS and RFS among TAM-treated patients carrying the wild-type rs4880 A allele as compared with the other genotypes (n = 64). The wild-type rs13181 AA genotype was similarly associated with better RFS and BCSS in the TAM-treated population (n = 65). Conclusion. This is the first study to show that the MnSOD rs4880 and XPD rs13181 polymorphisms may influence the outcome of breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant TAM monotherapy. Patients carrying the rs4880 A allele or rs13181 AA genotype may have a reduced ability to scavenge ROS and repair the DNA damage generated by TAM treatment. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Viitala S.M.,University of Eastern Finland | Viitala S.M.,Biocenter Kuopio | Jaaskelainen A.J.,University of Helsinki | Kelo E.,Reagena Ltd | And 7 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2013

Microarrays are widely used in high-throughput DNA and RNA hybridization tests and recently adopted to protein and small molecule interaction studies in basic research and diagnostics. Parallel detection of serum antibodies and antigens has several potential applications in epidemiologic research, vaccine development, and in the diagnosis of allergies, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. This study demonstrates an immobilization method for immunoassay-based microarray in conventional 96-well polystyrene plates for a serologic diagnostic method combined with quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) assay. A synthetic peptide (HIV-1), a recombinant protein (Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid), and purified virus preparations (Sindbis and adenoviruses) were used as antigens for virus-specific antibody detection and monoclonal anti-CRP antibody for antigen detection. The microarray was based on conventional enzyme immunoassays and densitometry from photographed results. Peptide and recombinant antigens functioned well, while whole virus antigens gave discrepant results in 1 out of 23 samples from the reference method, tested with human sera with various antibody responses. The CRP results were in concordance in the concentration range 0.5-150 mg/L with 2 commercially available CRP assays: ReaScan rapid test (R2 = 0.9975) and Cobas 6000 analyzer (R2 =0.9595). The results indicate that microtiter plates provide a promising platform for further development of microarrays for parallel antibody and antigen detection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Huhtala T.,University of Eastern Finland | Huhtala T.,Biocenter Kuopio | Kaikkonen M.U.,University of Eastern Finland | Kaikkonen M.U.,Ark Therapeutics Ltd | And 7 more authors.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Viral vectors are central tools for gene therapy. Targeting of the vector to desired tissues followed by expression of the therapeutic gene forms one of the most critical points in effective therapy. In this study we used streptavidin-displaying lentivirus conjugated to biotinylated anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody (Cetuximab) to target vector specifically to ovarian tumors.Biodistribution of the targeted virus was studied in nude mice with orthotropic SKOV-3m human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Radiolabeled antibodies were conjugated to streptavidin-displaying lentiviruses and biodistribution of the virus after the intravenous delivery to tumor-bearing mice was monitored up to 6. days using combined SPECT/CT imaging modality. Organ samples were collected post mortem and specific organ activities were measured. The integration of lentivirus vectors in collected tissue samples was analyzed using qPCR and the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgene was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Our results showed that lentiviruses conjugated to Cetuximab (Cet-LV) or control human IgG (IgG-LV) accumulated mainly to the liver and spleen of the mice and to lower extent to lung, kidneys and tumors. Strikingly, in 50% of the mice injected with cetuximab-targeted lentivirus no tumor tissue was found, whereas the remaining half showed a significant decrease in tumor size. We hypothesize/present data that lentivirus-mediated INF-αβ production together with tumor targeting could function as an effective antitumor treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Yagodkin A.,University of Eastern Finland | Loschcke K.,University of Eastern Finland | Weisell J.,Biocenter Kuopio | Azhayev A.,University of Eastern Finland
Tetrahedron | Year: 2010

In the presence of aqueous trialkylammonium hydrogen carbonate, the Staudinger reaction leads to the intermediate formation of the corresponding isocyanate, which, in turn, reacts further with a nucleophilic reagent also present in the mixture and results in carbamoylation with good yield. On the basis of this reaction a practical carbamoylation procedure was devised and a comparative study on suitability of different solvents and phosphorus (III) derivatives for carbamoylation reaction was conducted. The versatility of the method was demonstrated by examples with different classes of nucleophilic compounds that included the aminomethyl resin and natural compounds that display poor solubility in organic solvents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Heikkinen A.T.,University of Eastern Finland | Heikkinen A.T.,Biocenter Kuopio | Korjamo T.,Novamass Ltd | Korjamo T.,Orion Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2010

P-Glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the barriers limiting drug absorption from the intestine. Predictions of the intestinal P-glycoprotein function need to take into account the concentration dependency because high intestinal drug concentrations may saturate P-glycoprotein. However, the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein lies inside the cells and the drug concentration at the binding site cannot be measured directly. Therefore, rigorous determination of concentration dependent P-glycoprotein kinetics is challenging. In this study, the effects of the aqueous boundary layers, extracellular pH and cellular retention on the apparent saturation kinetics of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of quinidine in an in vitro cell permeation setting were explored. The changes in the experimental conditions caused 1 order of magnitude variation in the apparent affinity to P-glycoprotein (K m,app) and a 5-fold difference in the maximum effective P-glycoprotein mediated transport rate of quinidine (Vmax,app). However, fitting the concentration data into a compartmental model which accounted for the aqueous boundary layers, cell membranes and cellular retention suggested that the P-glycoprotein function per se was not altered, it was the differences in the passive transfer of quinidine which changed the apparent transport kinetics. These results provide further insight into the dynamics of the P-glycoprotein mediated transport and on the roles of several confounding factors involved in in vitro experimental setting. Further, the results confirm the applicability of compartmental model based data analysis approach in the determination of active transporter kinetics. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Mitrofan L.M.,University of Eastern Finland | Mitrofan L.M.,Biocenter Kuopio | Castells F.B.,University of Eastern Finland | Pelkonen J.,University of Eastern Finland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclast function, widely used to treat excessive bone resorption associated with bone metastases, that also have anti-tumor activity. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. ZOL is the most potent nitrogen-containing BPs, and it inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Recently we demonstrated that accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the consequent formation of a new type of ATP analog (ApppI) after mevalonate pathway inhibition by nitrogen-containing BPs strongly correlates with ZOL-induced cell death in cancer cells in vitro. In this study we show that ZOL-induced apoptosis in HF28RAhuman follicular lymphoma cells occurs exclusively via the mitochondrial pathway, involves lysosomes, and is dependent on mevalonate pathway inhibition. To define the exact signaling pathway connecting them, we used modified HF28RA cell lines overexpressing either BclXL or dominant-negative caspase-9. In both mutant cells, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (MMP and LMP) were totally prevented, indicating signaling between lysosomes and mitochondria and, additionally, an amplification loop for MMP and/or LMP regulated by caspase-9 in association with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase inhibition. Additionally, the lysosomal pathway in ZOL-induced apoptosis plays an additional/amplification role of the intrinsic pathway independently of caspase-3 activation. Moreover, we show a potential regulation by Bcl-XL and caspase-9 on cell cycle regulators of S-phase. Our findings provide a molecular basis for new strategies concomitantly targeting cell death pathways from multiple sites. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Aaltonen N.,University of Eastern Finland | Laitinen J.T.,University of Eastern Finland | Laitinen J.T.,Biocenter Kuopio | Lehtonen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Lehtonen M.,Biocenter Kuopio
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator with multiple biological functions. A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of LPAs (16:0 LPA, 18:0 LPA, 18:1 LPA, 20:4 LPA) in rat brain cryosections. After partitioning the LPAs from other lipophilic material present in the tissue with a liquid-liquid extraction, a reversed-phase column and ion pair technique was used for separating analytes with a gradient elution. An internal standard (17:0 LPA) was included in the analysis. Detection and quantification of the LPAs were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The artificial formation of LPAs from lysophosphatidylcholines during the sample preparation procedure and instrumentation was carefully studied during the method development. The method was validated; acceptable selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability were obtained for concentrations within the calibration curve range of 0.02-1.0 μM for LPAs. The quantification limit of the assay was 54 fmol injected into column for each LPAs. The method was applied to comparative studies of LPA levels in rat brain cryosections after the various chemical pre-treatments of the sections. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Raikkonen J.,University of Eastern Finland | Raikkonen J.,Biocenter Kuopio | Taskinen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Taskinen M.,Biocenter Kuopio | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

A class of drugs successfully used for treatment of metabolic bone diseases is the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), which act by inhibiting the vital enzyme, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), of the mevalonate pathway. Inhibition of FPPS by N-BPs results in the intracellular accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and consequently induces the biosynthesis of a cytotoxic ATP analog (ApppI). Previous cell-free data has reported that N-BPs inhibit FPPS by time-dependent manner as a result of the conformational change. This associated conformational change can be measured as an isomerization constant (K isom) and reflects the binding differences of the N-BPs to FPPS. In the present study, we tested the biological relevance of the calculated K isom values of zoledronic acid, risedronate and five experimental N-BP analogs in the cell culture model. We used IPP/ApppI formation as a surrogate marker for blocking of FPPS in the mevalonate pathway.As a result, a correlation between the time-dependent inhibition of FPPS and IPP/ApppI formation by N-BPs was observed. This outcome indicates that the time-dependent inhibition of FPPS enzyme is a biologically significant mechanism and further supports the use of the K isom calculations for evaluation of the overall potency of the novel FPPS inhibitors. Additionally, data illustrates that IPP/ApppI analysis is a useful method to monitor the intracellular action of drugs and drug candidates based on FPPS inhibition. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Biocenter Kuopio
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2010

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclast function, widely used to treat excessive bone resorption associated with bone metastases, that also have anti-tumor activity. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. ZOL is the most potent nitrogen-containing BPs, and it inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Recently we demonstrated that accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the consequent formation of a new type of ATP analog (ApppI) after mevalonate pathway inhibition by nitrogen-containing BPs strongly correlates with ZOL-induced cell death in cancer cells in vitro. In this study we show that ZOL-induced apoptosis in HF28RA human follicular lymphoma cells occurs exclusively via the mitochondrial pathway, involves lysosomes, and is dependent on mevalonate pathway inhibition. To define the exact signaling pathway connecting them, we used modified HF28RA cell lines overexpressing either BclXL or dominant-negative caspase-9. In both mutant cells, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (MMP and LMP) were totally prevented, indicating signaling between lysosomes and mitochondria and, additionally, an amplification loop for MMP and/or LMP regulated by caspase-9 in association with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase inhibition. Additionally, the lysosomal pathway in ZOL-induced apoptosis plays an additional/amplification role of the intrinsic pathway independently of caspase-3 activation. Moreover, we show a potential regulation by Bcl-XL and caspase-9 on cell cycle regulators of S-phase. Our findings provide a molecular basis for new strategies concomitantly targeting cell death pathways from multiple sites.

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