Wageningen, Netherlands
Wageningen, Netherlands

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Zhang C.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | Sanders J.P.M.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | Sanders J.P.M.,Food and Biobased Research Institute | Xiao T.T.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. © 2015 Zhang et al.

Zhang C.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | van Krimpen M.M.,Animal science Group | Sanders J.P.M.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | Sanders J.P.M.,Food & Biobased Research | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2016

Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues, however, alkali usage is high and the resulting low protein quality limits its application. The research objective was to investigate the influence of pre-treatments with ethanol, Viscozyme® L and/or H2O2 on the subsequent alkaline protein extraction, and on their possible products for food applications. Polyphenols and/or pigments can be obtained by ethanol pre-treatment. Galacturonic acid and glucose can be obtained using Viscozyme® L. Pre-treatments using ethanol or Viscozyme® L individually reduced alkali consumption by 25% and improved protein extraction yield and purity. Their combination has the best effect. Additionally, pre-treatment using 50% ethanol reduced browning by 59% while pre-treatment using Viscozyme® L increased contents of arginine, threonine, and serine in the final alkaline protein extract. H2O2 pre-treatment had a negative effect on the alkaline protein extraction. These pre-treatments and protein extraction can be added to the existing process. © 2016 Institution of Chemical Engineers

Zhang C.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | Bozileva E.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | van de Klis F.,Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research | Dong Y.,Biobased Chemistry and Technology Group | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA without losses of protein. GA extraction efficiencies in NaOH, HCl, phosphate buffer solution, or with Viscozyme® L were determined using green tea residues (GTR) as model material. Most GA was extracted using Viscozyme® L, mainly due to its cellulase activity. Extraction yielded more than 95% GA with only 5% protein. Alternatively, GA-containing pectin can be extracted in a weak alkaline solution. Here, GA yield is dominated by the ratio of extraction volume to biomass weight. The profits of these two integrated processes can be higher than one step protein extraction. The Viscozyme® L integrated process is suitable for GA production for application in chemicals, and may have a profit of 142$/ton GTR when enzyme cost are sufficiently lowered. The profit of the weak alkaline integrated process is estimated at 118$/ton GTR. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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