Hofreiter M.,University of York |
Collins M.,BioArCh |
Stewart J.R.,Bournemouth University
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012
The last few years have seen an enormous proliferation of ancient biomolecules research, especially in the field of ancient DNA. Ancient DNA studies have been transformed by the advent of next generation sequencing, with the first Pleistocene sample being analysed in 2005, and several complete and draft genomes that have been compiled from ancient DNA to date. At the same time, although less conspicuous, research on ancient proteins has also seen advances, with the time limit for research on ancient biomolecules now extending to over 1 million years. Here we review which effects these developments have on research in Quaternary science. We identify several lines of research that have the potential to profit substantially from these recent developments in ancient biomolecules research. First, the identification of taxa can be made using ancient biomolecules, and in the case of ancient DNA, specimens can even be assigned to specific populations within a species. Second, increasingly large DNA data sets from Pleistocene animals allow the elucidation of ever more precise pictures of the population dynamic processes whereby organisms respond to climate and environmental change. With the accompanying better understanding of process in the Quaternary, past ecologies can also more realistically be interpreted from proxy data sets. The dominant message from this research so far is that the Quaternary saw a great deal more dynamism in populations than had been forecast by conventional palaeoecology. This suggests that reconstructions of past environmental conditions need to be done with caution. Third, ancient DNA can also now be obtained directly from sediments to elucidate the presence of both plant and animal species in an area even in the absence of identifiable fossils, be it macro- or micro-fossils. Finally, the analysis of proteins enables the identification of bone remains to genus and sometimes species level far beyond the survival time of DNA, at least in temperate regions, illustrating that precise data is now forthcoming from seemingly unlikely sources. Together, these approaches allow the study of environmental dynamics throughout a substantial part, and perhaps even the entire Quaternary (the last 2.6 million years). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Martiniano R.,Trinity College Dublin |
Caffell A.,York Osteoarchaeology Ltd |
Caffell A.,Durham University |
Holst M.,York Osteoarchaeology Ltd |
And 18 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016
The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (â 1/41 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. Six of the Roman genomes show affinity with modern British Celtic populations, particularly Welsh, but significantly diverge from populations from Yorkshire and other eastern English samples. They also show similarity with the earlier Iron-Age genome, suggesting population continuity, but differ from the later Anglo-Saxon genome. This pattern concords with profound impact of migrations in the Anglo-Saxon period. Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. Source
News Article | February 8, 2002
In a move that didn't really startle me, STMicroelectronics, the manufacturer of the Kyro line of graphics cards, has said they will leave the graphics card industry. According to this article on Yahoo! Finance, the company's graphics cards brought in slightly above .002% of the company's total revenue. The assets left are being sold, but it wouldn't surprise me if nothing much came of them. The potential sale is in line with ST's objective of focusing its R&D efforts on market areas that are strategically important to the Company, notably: communications, automotive, computer peripherals, smart cards and digital consumer. In the digital consumer market, ST will continue to emphasize set-top box, DVD and digital TV applications, in which the Company holds worldwide leadership positions. It's good to see the company focusing on what they're good at. Did anyone actually purchase a Kyro/Kyro 2 and think of it as acceptable performance-wise? I don't see anyone touching NVidia at this point in the 3d graphics industry, unless ATi's next card lives up to the hype that's been created around it, and even then it would shock me if NVidia lost a lot of market share. Even the low priced NVidia cards are performing extremely well. This looks to be another example of NVidia's dominance in the market. Edit: it came to my attention the Kyro 3 is still being worked on by the actual designers of the chip. This article was meant to say the Kyro 2 is no more as it used to be, and not much will come of the current Kyro technology, as the manufacturer is selling its assets.