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Schneider M.,MPI of Biophysical Chemistry | Will C.L.,MPI of Biophysical Chemistry | Anokhina M.,MPI of Biophysical Chemistry | Tazi J.,Montpellier University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

The first step in splicing of pre-mRNAs with long introns is exon definition, where U1 and U2 snRNPs bind at opposite ends of an exon. After exon definition, these snRNPs must form a complex across the upstream intron to allow splicing catalysis. Exon definition and conversion of cross-exon to cross-intron spliceosomal complexes are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to U1 and U2 snRNPs, cross-exon complexes contain U4, U5, and U6 (which form the tri-snRNP). Tri-snRNP docking involves the formation of U2/U6 helix II. This interaction is stabilized by a 5′ splice site (SS)-containing oligonucleotide, which can bind the tri-snRNP and convert the cross-exon complex into a cross-intron, B-like complex. Our data suggest that the switch from cross-exon to cross-intron complexes can occur directly when an exon-bound tri-snRNP interacts with an upstream 5′SS, without prior formation of a cross-intron A complex, revealing an alternative spliceosome assembly pathway. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Boesler C.,MPI for Biophysical Chemistry | Boesler C.,Targos Molecular Pathology GmbH | Rigo N.,MPI for Biophysical Chemistry | Anokhina M.M.,MPI for Biophysical Chemistry | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

The precise role of the spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. We show that stable tri-snRNP association during pre-catalytic spliceosomal B complex formation is blocked by a dominant-negative hPrp28 mutant lacking ATPase activity. Complexes formed in the presence of ATPase-deficient hPrp28 represent a novel assembly intermediate, the pre-B complex, that contains U1, U2 and loosely associated tri-snRNP and is stalled before disruption of the U1/5′ss base pairing interaction, consistent with a role for hPrp28 in the latter. Pre-B and B complexes differ structurally, indicating that stable tri-snRNP integration is accompanied by substantial rearrangements in the spliceosome. Disruption of the U1/5′ss interaction alone is not sufficient to bypass the block by ATPase-deficient hPrp28, suggesting hPrp28 has an additional function at this stage of splicing. Our data provide new insights into the function of Prp28 in higher eukaryotes, and the requirements for stable tri-snRNP binding during B complex formation. Source

Grote M.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Wolf E.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Will C.L.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Lemm I.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

Protein complexes containing Prp19 play a central role during catalytic activation of the spliceosome, and Prp19 and its related proteins are major components of the spliceosome's catalytic core RNP. To learn more about the spatial organization of the human Prp19 (hPrp19)/CDC5L complex, which is comprised of hPrp19, CDC5L, PRL1, AD002, SPF27, CTNNBL1, and HSP73, we purified native hPrp19/CDC5L complexes from HeLa cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged AD002 or SPF27. Stoichiometric analyses indicated that, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae NTC (nineteen complex), the human Prp19/CDC5L complex contains four copies of hPrp19. Salt treatment identified a stable core comprised of CDC5L, hPrp19, PRL1, and SPF27. Proteinprotein interaction studies revealed that SPF27 directly interacts with each component of the hPrp19/CDC5L complex core and also elucidated several additional, previously unknown interactions between hPrp19/CDC5L complex components. Limited proteolysis of the hPrp19/CDC5L complex revealed a protease-resistant complex comprised of SPF27, the C terminus of CDC5L, and the N termini of PRL1 and hPrp19. Under the electron microscope, purified hPrp19/CDC5L complexes exhibit an elongated, asymmetric shape with a maximum dimension of ∼20 nm. Our findings not only elucidate the molecular organization of the hPrp19/CDC5L complex but also provide insights into potential protein-protein interactions at the core of the catalytically active spliceosome. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Bessonov S.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Anokhina M.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Krasauskas A.,Research Group of 3D Electronic Cryomicroscopy | Golas M.M.,Research Group of 3D Electronic Cryomicroscopy | And 7 more authors.
RNA | Year: 2010

To better understand the compositional and structural dynamics of the human spliceosome during its activation, we set out to isolate spliceosomal complexes formed after precatalytic B but prior to catalytically active C complexes. By shortening the polypyrimidine tract of the PM5 pre-mRNA, which lacks a 3′ splice site and 3′ exon, we stalled spliceosome assembly at the activation stage. We subsequently affinity purified human Bact complexes under the same conditions previously used to isolate B and C complexes, and analyzed their protein composition by mass spectrometry. A comparison of the protein composition of these complexes allowed a fine dissection of compositional changes during the B to Bact and Bact to C transitions, and comparisons with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bact complex revealed that the compositional dynamics of the spliceosome during activation are largely conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. Human SF3b155 and CDC5L were shown to be phosphorylated specifically during the B to B act and Bact to C transition, respectively, suggesting these modifications function at these stages of splicing. The two-dimensional structure of the human Bact complex was determined by electron microscopy, and a comparison with the B complex revealed that the morphology of the human spliceosome changes significantly during its activation. The overall architecture of the human and S. cerevisiae Bact complex is similar, suggesting that many of the higher order interactions among spliceosomal components, as well as their dynamics, are also largely conserved. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Copyright © 2010 RNA Society. Source

Samwer M.,MPI for Biophysical Chemistry | Dehne H.-J.,MPI for Biophysical Chemistry | Spira F.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Kollmar M.,Systems Biology of Motor Proteins Group | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2013

Nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes grow 100 000-fold larger in volume than a typical somatic nucleus and require an unusual intranuclear F-actin scaffold for mechanical stability. We now developed a method for mapping F-actin interactomes and identified a comprehensive set of F-actin binders from the oocyte nuclei. Unexpectedly, the most prominent interactor was a novel kinesin termed NabKin (Nuclear and meiotic actin-bundling Kinesin). NabKin not only binds microtubules but also F-actin structures, such as the intranuclear actin bundles in prophase and the contractile actomyosin ring during cytokinesis. The interaction between NabKin and F-actin is negatively regulated by Importin-β and is responsive to spatial information provided by RanGTP. Disconnecting NabKin from F-actin during meiosis caused cytokinesis failure and egg polyploidy. We also found actin-bundling activity in Nabkin's somatic paralogue KIF14, which was previously shown to be essential for somatic cell division. Our data are consistent with the notion that NabKin/KIF14 directly link microtubules with F-actin and that such link is essential for cytokinesis. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

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