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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

Deloche C.,LOreal | Minondo A.M.,LOreal | Bernard B.A.,LOreal | Bernerd F.,LOreal | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

A placebo-controlled randomized pilot study was performed on five postmenopausal women aged from 60 to 75 years. The women applied 320 mg (2 mg/cm 2) of either placebo or 10% C-β-D-xylopyranoside-2- hydroxy-propane (C-xyloside) cream to each outer forearm twice daily for 3 months. At the end of the treatment, skin biopsies were collected from application areas on both forearms. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed skin ultrastructural changes at the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ) after 10% C-xyloside application for 3 months. The morphological appearance of the DEJ showed strong improvements, with more homogeneous and regular lamina densa in the C-xylosidetreated compared to the placebo treated skin areas. The number of zones showing basement membrane re-duplicationwas indeed strikingly reduced on C-xyloside-treated skin. These ultrastructural results were further confirmed by a statistically significant increase in the expression levels of α6-integrin the and laminin-332, as estimated by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, these data suggest that topical C-xyloside application in vivo may be efficient in inducing a better dermal-epidermal cohesion when such a junction is deficient, as is the case in photo-aged or chronologically aged skin. Moreover, a statistically significant increase in CD44 expression was noted in the epidermis of C-xyloside-treated compared to the placebo treated skin areas.

Giot J.-P.,University of Poitiers | Giot J.-P.,Plastic Surgery Unit | Paris I.,University of Poitiers | Levillain P.,Pathology Unit | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Hypertensive leg ulcer (HLU) is an inflammatory disease characterized by intense pain, alteration of vascularization, and skin necrosis. The optimal treatment relies on surgical removal of necrotic tissues covered by a split-skin graft. We studied the histomorphology of the lesions and investigated the involvement of inflammatory cells and cytokines to further define the physiopathology of HLU. We report epidermis acanthosis and a preferential occlusion of the precapillary arterioles with infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and T lymphocytes in the dermis. OSM, IL-1β, and IL-6 were overexpressed in the ulcer, whereas the Th17-derived cytokines were not. In vitro, the addition of IL-1β and OSM promoted acanthosis and destructuring of reconstructed epidermis. Exogenous IL-1β and OSM synergistically induced epidermal acanthosis in mice. These data show that OSM and IL-1β are not only a biological characteristic signature of HLU, but these cytokines reflect a specific inflammatory state, directly involved in the pathogenesis. We suggest that anti-cytokine biotherapies could be an alternative strategy to surgery to treat HLU. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

Debiais-Delpech C.,University of Poitiers | Godet J.,University of Poitiers | Pedretti N.,BIOalternatives | Bernard F.-X.,BIOalternatives | And 5 more authors.
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2014

Objectives: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1β, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness. Methods and materials: Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC. Results: These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1β and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1β and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival. Conclusions: The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1β and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Lamiche C.,University of Poitiers | Clarhaut J.,University of Poitiers | Clarhaut J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Strale P.-O.,University of Poitiers | And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2012

For decades, cancer was associated with gap-junction defects. However, more recently it appeared that the gap junction proteins (connexins) could be re-expressed and participate to cancer cell dissemination during the late stages of tumor progression. Since primary tumors of prostate cancer (PCa) are known to be connexin deficient, it was interesting to verify whether their bone-targeted metastatic behaviour could be influenced by the re-expression of the connexin type (connexin43) which is originally present in prostate tissue and highly expressed in bone where it participates to the differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of the increased Cx43 expression, by retroviral infection, on the metastatic behaviour of two well-characterized cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) representing different stages of PCa progression. It appeared that Cx43 differently behaved in those cell lines and induced different phenotypes. In LNCaP, Cx43 was functional, localized at the plasma membrane and its high expression was correlated with a more aggressive phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, those Cx43-expressing LNCaP cells exhibited a high incidence of osteolytic metastases generated by bone xenografts in mice. Interestingly, LNCaP cells were also able to decrease the proliferation of cocultured osteoblastic cells. In contrast, the increased expression of Cx43 in PC-3 cells led to an unfunctional, cytoplasmic localization of the protein and was correlated with a reduction of proliferation, adhesion and invasion of the cells. In conclusion, the localization and the functionality of Cx43 may govern the ability of PCa cells to metastasize in bones. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Regnacq M.,University of Poitiers | Voisin P.,University of Poitiers | Sere Y.Y.,University of Poitiers | Sere Y.Y.,University of Massachusetts Medical School1240 Innovation Way | And 8 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Macroautophagy is a degradative pathway whereby cells encapsulate and degrade cytoplasmic material within endogenously-built membranes. Previous studies have suggested that autophagosome membranes originate from lipid droplets. However, it was recently shown that rapamycin could induce autophagy in cells lacking these organelles. Here we show that lipid droplet-deprived cells are unable to perform autophagy in response to nitrogen-starvation because of an accelerated lipid synthesis that is not observed with rapamycin. Using cerulenin, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, and exogenous addition of palmitic acid we could restore nitrogen-starvation induced autophagy in the absence of lipid droplets. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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