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Barrault C.,BIOalternatives | Dichamp I.,Laboratoire Of Virologie | Garnier J.,BIOalternatives | Pedretti N.,BIOalternatives | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2012

Sebocytes originate from the same lineage as keratinocytes, and both cell types may have similarities in terms of growth and differentiation. We were interested in studying the behaviour of human sebocytes when cultured in conditions validated for epidermal reconstruction. For this purpose, we established a HPV16-E6/7-immortalized human sebocyte cell line (SEBO662) growing in keratinocyte defined media. Postconfluent SEBO662 cells in monolayers express the early sebocyte marker, cytokeratin 7 (K7), do not express Epithelia Membrane Antigen (EMA) and do not exhibit strong lipogenic activity. However, when placed at the air-liquid interface, SEBO662 multilayers spontaneously differentiate into a sebaceous-like structure as shown by the strong polarized expression of the late sebaceous marker EMA, the overexpression of some lipogenic markers and lipid production on the upper side of the epithelium. This work highlights the value of simple 3D models for exhibiting spontaneous differentiation and polarization. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Debiais-Delpech C.,University of Poitiers | Godet J.,University of Poitiers | Pedretti N.,Bioalternatives | Bernard F.-X.,Bioalternatives | And 5 more authors.
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2014

Objectives: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1β, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness. Methods and materials: Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC. Results: These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1β and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1β and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival. Conclusions: The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1β and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Lamiche C.,University of Poitiers | Clarhaut J.,University of Poitiers | Clarhaut J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Strale P.-O.,University of Poitiers | And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2012

For decades, cancer was associated with gap-junction defects. However, more recently it appeared that the gap junction proteins (connexins) could be re-expressed and participate to cancer cell dissemination during the late stages of tumor progression. Since primary tumors of prostate cancer (PCa) are known to be connexin deficient, it was interesting to verify whether their bone-targeted metastatic behaviour could be influenced by the re-expression of the connexin type (connexin43) which is originally present in prostate tissue and highly expressed in bone where it participates to the differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of the increased Cx43 expression, by retroviral infection, on the metastatic behaviour of two well-characterized cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) representing different stages of PCa progression. It appeared that Cx43 differently behaved in those cell lines and induced different phenotypes. In LNCaP, Cx43 was functional, localized at the plasma membrane and its high expression was correlated with a more aggressive phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, those Cx43-expressing LNCaP cells exhibited a high incidence of osteolytic metastases generated by bone xenografts in mice. Interestingly, LNCaP cells were also able to decrease the proliferation of cocultured osteoblastic cells. In contrast, the increased expression of Cx43 in PC-3 cells led to an unfunctional, cytoplasmic localization of the protein and was correlated with a reduction of proliferation, adhesion and invasion of the cells. In conclusion, the localization and the functionality of Cx43 may govern the ability of PCa cells to metastasize in bones. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | University of Poitiers, University of Bordeaux 1 and BIOalternatives
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2016

Macroautophagy is a degradative pathway whereby cells encapsulate and degrade cytoplasmic material within endogenously-built membranes. Previous studies have suggested that autophagosome membranes originate from lipid droplets. However, it was recently shown that rapamycin could induce autophagy in cells lacking these organelles. Here we show that lipid droplet-deprived cells are unable to perform autophagy in response to nitrogen-starvation because of an accelerated lipid synthesis that is not observed with rapamycin. Using cerulenin, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, and exogenous addition of palmitic acid we could restore nitrogen-starvation induced autophagy in the absence of lipid droplets.


PubMed | University of Poitiers, Institute Mutualiste Montsouris, Hospital Tenon and Bioalternatives
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Urologic oncology | Year: 2014

Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness.Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC.These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1 and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1 and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival.The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1 and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease.


PubMed | University of Poitiers, BIOalternatives and Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine | Year: 2016

Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. However, neither early complete healing nor quality of epithelialization is satisfactory. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated paediatric foreskin and auricular skin as donor sources, autologous keratinocyte transplantation, and compared the graft efficiency to the in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue. Keratinocytes were isolated from surgical samples by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation and epidermal reconstruction capacities were evaluated. Differentiation status was analysed, using qRT-PCR and immunolabelling. Eleven children were grafted with foreskin-derived (boys) or auricular (girls) keratinocyte suspensions dripped onto deep severe burns. The aesthetic and functional quality of epithelialization was monitored in a standardized way. Foreskin keratinocyte graft in male children provides for the re-epithelialization of partial deep severe burns and accelerates wound healing, thus allowing successful wound closure, and improves the quality of scars. In accordance, in vitro studies have revealed a high yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and their potential in terms of regeneration and differentiation. We report a successful method for grafting paediatric males presenting large severe burns through direct spreading of autologous foreskin keratinocytes. This alternative method is easy to implement, improves the quality of skin and minimizes associated donor site morbidity. In vitro studies have highlighted the potential of foreskin tissue for graft applications and could help in tissue selection with the prospect of grafting burns for girls.


PubMed | University of Poitiers and BIOalternatives
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Keratinocyte differentiation program leading to an organized epidermis plays a key role in maintaining the first line of defense of the skin. Epidermal integrity is regulated by a tight communication between keratinocytes and leucocytes, particularly under cytokine control. Imbalance of the cytokine network leads to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Our attempt to model skin inflammation showed that the combination of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-1, OSM and TNF (Mix M5) synergistically increases chemokine and antimicrobial-peptide expression, recapitulating some features of psoriasis. Other characteristics of psoriasis are acanthosis and down-regulation of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Our aim was to characterize the specific roles of these cytokines on keratinocyte differentiation, and to compare with psoriatic lesion features. All cytokines decrease keratinocyte differentiation markers, but IL-22 and OSM were the most powerful, and the M5 strongly synergized the effects. In addition, IL-22 and OSM induced epidermal hyperplasia in vitro and M5 induced epidermal thickening and decreased differentiation marker expression in a mouse model, as observed in human psoriatic skin lesions. This study highlights the precise role of cytokines in the skin inflammatory response. IL-22 and OSM more specifically drive epidermal hyperplasia and differentiation loss while IL-1, IL-17A and TNF were more involved in the activation of innate immunity.


PubMed | University of Poitiers, BIOalternatives and Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries | Year: 2015

Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated foreskin and other anatomic sites as donor sources for autologous keratinocyte graft in children. We studied in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue.Keratinocytes were isolated from foreskin, auricular skin, chest and abdominal skin by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation, epidermal reconstruction capacities and differentiation status were analyzed.In vitro studies revealed the higher yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and higher potential in terms of proliferative capacity, regeneration and differentiation. Cultured keratinocytes from foreskin express lower amounts of differentiation markers than those isolated from trunk and ear. Histological analysis of reconstituted human epidermis derived from foreskin and inguinal keratinocytes showed a structured multilayered epithelium, whereas those obtained from ear pinna-derived keratinocytes were unstructured.Our studies highlight the potential of foreskin tissue for autograft applications in boys. A suitable alternative donor site for autologous cell transplantation in female paediatric burn patients remains an open question in our department. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro studies and RHE reconstructive capacities of cells from different body sites can be helpful to select an optimal site for keratinocyte isolation before considering graft protocols for girls.


Mcheik J.N.,Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique | Mcheik J.N.,University of Poitiers | Barrault C.,BIOalternatives | Pedretti N.,BIOalternatives | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2016

Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. However, neither early complete healing nor quality of epithelialization is satisfactory. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated paediatric foreskin and auricular skin as donor sources, autologous keratinocyte transplantation, and compared the graft efficiency to the in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue. Keratinocytes were isolated from surgical samples by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation and epidermal reconstruction capacities were evaluated. Differentiation status was analysed, using qRT-PCR and immunolabelling. Eleven children were grafted with foreskin-derived (boys) or auricular (girls) keratinocyte suspensions dripped onto deep severe burns. The aesthetic and functional quality of epithelialization was monitored in a standardized way. Foreskin keratinocyte graft in male children provides for the re-epithelialization of partial deep severe burns and accelerates wound healing, thus allowing successful wound closure, and improves the quality of scars. In accordance, in vitro studies have revealed a high yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and their potential in terms of regeneration and differentiation. We report a successful method for grafting paediatric males presenting large severe burns through direct spreading of autologous foreskin keratinocytes. This alternative method is easy to implement, improves the quality of skin and minimizes associated donor site morbidity. In vitro studies have highlighted the potential of foreskin tissue for graft applications and could help in tissue selection with the prospect of grafting burns for girls. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | BIOalternatives
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2015

Androgens act through non-genomic and androgen receptor (AR)-dependent genomic mechanisms. AR is expressed in the sebaceous gland and the importance of androgens in the sebaceous function is well established. However, the in vitro models used to date have failed to evidence a clear genomic effect (e.g., modification of gene expression profile) of androgens on human sebocyte cells. In order to study the impact of active androgens in sebocytes, we constructed a stable human sebocyte cell line derived from SEBO662 [17] constitutively expressing a fully functional AR. In these SEBO662 AR+ cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced AR nuclear translocation and the strong modulation of a set of transcripts (RASD1, GREB1...) known to be androgen-sensitive in other androgenic cells and tissues. Moreover, we observed that DHT precociously down-regulated markers for immature follicular cells (KRT15, TNC) and for hair lineage (KRT75, FST) and up-regulated the expression of genes potentially related to sebocyte differentiation (MUC1/EMA, AQP3, FADS2). These effects were fully confirmed at the protein level. In addition, DHT-stimulated SEBO662 AR+, cultured in a low-calcium defined keratinocyte medium without serum or any complement, neosynthesize lipids, including sebum lipids, and store increased amounts of triglycerides in lipid droplets. DHT also induces morphological changes, increases cell size, and treatments over 7 days lead to a time-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic DNA-fragmented cells. Taken together, these results show for the first time that active androgens alone can engage immature sebocytes in a clear lipogenic differentiation process (Graphical abstract). These effects depend on the expression of a functional AR in these cells. This model should be of interest for revisiting the mechanisms of the sebaceous function in vitro and for the design of relevant pharmacological models for drug or compound testing.

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