Bio Waves Inc..

Encinitas, CA, United States

Bio Waves Inc..

Encinitas, CA, United States
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Norris T.F.,Bio Waves Inc. | Dunleavy K.J.,Bio Waves Inc. | Yack T.M.,Bio Waves Inc. | Ferguson E.L.,Bio Waves Inc.
Marine Mammal Science | Year: 2017

The minke whale is one of the most abundant species of baleen whales worldwide, yet is rarely sighted in subtropical waters. In the North Pacific, they produce a distinctive sound known as the "boing," which can be used to acoustically localize individuals. A vessel-based survey using both visual and passive acoustic monitoring was conducted during the spring of 2007 in a large (616,000 km2) study area encompassing the Mariana Islands. We applied line transect methods to data collected from a towed hydrophone array to estimate the abundance of calling minke whales in our study area. No minke whales were sighted, but there were hundreds of acoustic detections of boings. Computer algorithms were developed to localize calling minke whales from acoustic recordings, resulting in over 30 independent localizations, a six-fold increase over those estimated during the survey. The two best estimates of abundance of calling minke whales were determined to be 80 and 91 animals (0.13 and 0.15 animals per 1,000 km2, respectively; CV = 34%). These are the first density and abundance estimates for calling minke whales using towed hydrophone array surveys, and the first estimates for this species in the Mariana Islands region. These are considered minimum estimates of the true number of minke whales in the study area. © 2017 Society for Marine Mammalogy.

Papale E.,University of Turin | Azzolin M.,University of Turin | Cascao I.,University of The Azores | Gannier A.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013

Geographic variation in the acoustic features of whistles emitted by the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Atlantic Ocean (Azores and Canary Islands) and the Mediterranean was investigated. Ten parameters (signal duration, beginning, end, minimum and maximum frequency, the number of inflection points, of steps, of minima and maxima in the contour and the frequency range) were extracted from each whistle. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified 73% of sounds between Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. A cline in parameters was apparent from the Azores to the Mediterranean, with a major difference between the Canaries and the Mediterranean than between Azores and Canaries. Signal duration, maximum frequency, and frequency range measured in the Mediterranean sample were significantly lower compared to those measured in the Atlantic. Modulation parameters played a considerable role in area discrimination and were the only parameters contributing to highlight the differences within the Atlantic Ocean. Results suggest that the acoustic features constrained by structural phenotype, such as whistle's frequency parameters, have a major effect on the Atlantic and Mediterranean separation while behavioral context, social, and physical environment may be among the main factors contributing to local distinctiveness of Atlantic areas. These results have potential passive acoustic monitoring applications. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Lammers M.O.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Castellote M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Small R.J.,Alaska Department of Fish and Game | Atkinson S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013

The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to use passive acoustic monitoring to document the year-round distribution of belugas, as well as killer whales (Orcinus orca), which prey on belugas. Beginning in June 2009, ten moorings were deployed throughout the Inlet and refurbished every two to eight months. Despite challenging conditions consisting of strong tidal currents carrying debris and seasonal ice cover, 83% of mooring deployments were successfully recovered. Noise from water flow, vessel traffic, and/or industrial activities was present at several sites, potentially masking some signals. However, belugas were successfully detected at multiple locations. Detections were relatively common in the upper inlet and less common or absent at middle and lower inlet locations. Killer whale signals were also recorded. Some seasonal variability in the occurrence of both belugas and killer whales was evident. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Sousa-Lima R.S.,Cornell University | Sousa-Lima R.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Sousa-Lima R.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Norris T.F.,Bio Waves Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Mammals | Year: 2013

Fixed autonomous acoustic recording devices (autonomous recorders [ARs]) are defined as any electronic recording system that acquires and stores acoustic data internally (i.e., without a cable or radio link to transmit data to a receiving station), is deployed semi-permanently underwater (via a mooring, buoy, or attached to the sea floor), and must be retrieved to access the data. More than 30 ARs were reviewed. They varied greatly in capabilities and costs, from small, hand-deployable units for detecting dolphin and porpoise clicks in shallow water to larger units that can be deployed in deep water and can record at high-frequency bandwidths for over a year, but must be deployed from a large vessel. The capabilities and limitations of the systems reviewed herein are discussed in terms of their effectiveness in monitoring and studying marine mammals.

Azzolin M.,University of Turin | Gannier A.,British Petroleum | Lammers M.O.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Oswald J.N.,Bio Waves Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

Acoustic observation can complement visual observation to more effectively monitor occurrence and distribution of marine mammals. For effective acoustic censuses, calibration methods must be determined by joint visual and acoustic studies. Research is still needed in the field of acoustic species identification, particularly for smaller odontocetes. From 1994 to 2012, whistles of four odontocete species were recorded in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea to determine how reliably these vocalizations can be classified to species. Recordings were attributed to species by simultaneous visual observation. The results of this study highlight that the frequency parameters, which are linked to physical features of animals, show lower variability than modulation parameters, which are likely to be more dependent on complex eco-ethological contexts. For all the studied species, minimum and maximum frequencies were linearly correlated with body size. DFA and Classification Tree Analysis (CART) show that these parameters were the most important for classifying species; however, both statistical methods highlighted the need for combining them with the number of contour minima and contour maxima for correct classification. Generally, DFA and CART results reflected both phylogenetic distance (especially for common and striped dolphins) and the size of the species. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

Yack T.M.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | Yack T.M.,Bio Waves Inc. | Barlow J.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | Calambokidis J.,Cascadia Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013

Beaked whales are diverse and species rich taxa. They spend the vast majority of their time submerged, regularly diving to depths of hundreds to thousands of meters, typically occur in small groups, and behave inconspicuously at the surface. These factors make them extremely difficult to detect using standard visual survey methods. However, recent advancements in acoustic detection capabilities have made passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) a viable alternative. Beaked whales can be discriminated from other odontocetes by the unique characteristics of their echolocation clicks. In 2009 and 2010, PAM methods using towed hydrophone arrays were tested. These methods proved highly effective for real-time detection of beaked whales in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and were subsequently implemented in 2011 to successfully detect and track beaked whales during the ongoing Southern California Behavioral Response Study. The three year field effort has resulted in (1) the successful classification and tracking of Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), Baird's (Berardius bairdii), and unidentified Mesoplodon beaked whale species and (2) the identification of areas of previously unknown beaked whale habitat use. Identification of habitat use areas will contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between beaked whale distribution, occurrence, and preferred habitat characteristics on a relatively small spatial scale. These findings will also provide information that can be used to promote more effective management and conservation of beaked whales in the SCB, a heavily used Naval operation and training region. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Baumann-Pickering S.,University of California at San Diego | Yack T.M.,BioWaves Inc. | Yack T.M.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | Yack T.M.,San Diego State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013

Echolocation signals from Baird's beaked whales were recorded during visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetaceans in the California Current ecosystem and with autonomous, long-term recorders in the Southern California Bight. The preliminary measurement of the visually validated Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals from towed array data were used as a basis for identifying Baird's signals in the autonomous recorder data. Two distinct signal types were found, one being a beaked whale-like frequency modulated (FM) pulse, the other being a dolphin-like broadband click. The median FM inter-pulse interval was 230 ms. Both signal types showed a consistent multi-peak structure in their spectra with peaks at ∼9, 16, 25, and 40 kHz. Depending on signal type, as well as recording aspect and distance to the hydrophone, these peaks varied in relative amplitude. The description of Baird's echolocation signals will allow for studies of their distribution and abundance using towed array data without associated visual sightings and from autonomous seafloor hydrophones. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Rankin S.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | Baumann-Pickering S.,University of California at San Diego | Yack T.,Bio waves Inc. | Barlow J.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2011

Sounds from Longman's beaked whale, Indopacetus pacificus, were recorded during shipboard surveys of cetaceans surrounding the Hawaiian Islands archipelago; this represents the first known recording of this species. Sounds included echolocation clicks and burst pulses. Echolocation clicks were grouped into three categories, a 15 kHz click (n 106), a 25 kHz click (n 136), and a 25 kHz pulse with a frequency-modulated upsweep (n 70). The 15 and 25 kHz clicks were relatively short (181 and 144 ms, respectively); the longer 25 kHz upswept pulse was 288 ms. Burst pulses were long (0.5 s) click trains with approximately 240 clicks/s. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America.

Ou H.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Au W.W.L.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Oswald J.N.,Bio Waves Incorporated
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012

This letter introduces an algorithm for automatic detection of minke whale boing sounds. This method searches for frequency features of boings without calculating the continuous spectrogram of the data, thereby reducing computational time. The detector has been tested on 8 h of acoustic data recorded at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory in March 2007. This dataset was previously analyzed using the cross-correlation detector of xbat and was verified by a human listener, as reported in Oswald [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 3353-3360]. A comparison of results indicates that the detector introduced here generates fewer false alarms, and it recognizes low-SNR calls that are missed by xbat. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 94.80K | Year: 2015

We proposed to test, design, and modify an existing ‘X-Array’ tetrahedral (3-D) hydrophone array prototype and design with the ultimate goal of developing a production prototype called the ‘X-3D Array’. We will analyze field data collected previously from the first prototype, conduct hydrodynamic modeling of the array design, and research possible torque imbalances in the tow-cable, and use this information to make the necessary design changes to resolve the noise and twisting issues identified in the first prototype. We will then conduct field tests of the new X-3D Array to ensure it is meeting the necessary technical and operational specifications, such as towing it at 10 knots. We will consider the materials and fabrication processes throughout this process so that a production prototype will be ready for Phase II. We have chosen this accelerated approach because an initial prototype already exists. We have assembled a team of world renowned technical experts from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s Marine Physical Lab. Desert Star Systems LLC will provide guidance on the commercialization aspects of this effort. Bio-Waves Inc., a small business specializing in passive acoustic technologies, will oversee the project management and field testing aspects of the effort.

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