Hoshina R.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014
Background: DNA comparison is becoming the leading approach to the analysis of microbial diversity. For eukaryotes, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) has emerged as a conspicuous molecule that is useful for distinguishing between species. Because of the small number of usable ITS data in GenBank, ITS2 sequence comparisons have only been used for limited taxa. However, major institutions with planktonic algal culture collections have now released small subunit (SSU) to ITS rDNA sequence data for their collections. This development has uplifted the level of molecular systematics for these algae. Results: Forty-three strains of green algae isolated from German inland waters were investigated by using SSU-ITS rDNA sequencing. The strains were isolated through the direct plating method. Many of the strains went extinct during the years of culture. Thus, it could be expected that the surviving strains would be common, vigorous species. Nevertheless, 12 strains did not match any known species for which rDNA sequences had been determined. Furthermore, the identity of one strain was uncertain even at the genus level. Conclusions: The aforementioned results show that long-forgotten and neglected collections may be of great significance in understanding microbial diversity, and that much work still needs to be done before the diversity of freshwater green algae can be fully described. © 2014 Hoshina; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kawase M.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2012
Terahertz (THz) wave has a unique character that other range waves do not have, and its application is widely studied. Technology relating THz wave, such as generation, detection and application, remarkably develops in recent. Many studies about application of THz wave to food analysis have been performed. This review explains the basics of THz wave as well as application of THz wave to food analysis. Moreover, statistical method in treatment of THz spectrum is reported. © 2012 Food Sci. Technol. Res.
Uchikawa T.,Kyoto University |
Yamamoto A.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Inouye K.,Kyoto University
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011
Large vacuoles are characteristic of plant and fungal cells, and their origin has long attracted interest. The cellular slime mould provides a unique opportunity to study the de novo formation of vacuoles because, in its life cycle, a subset of the highly motile animal-like cells (prestalk cells) rapidly develops a single large vacuole and cellulosic cell wall to become plant-like cells (stalk cells). Here we describe the origin and process of vacuole formation using live-imaging of Dictyostelium cells expressing GFP-tagged ammonium transporter A (AmtA-GFP), which was found to reside on the membrane of stalk-cell vacuoles. We show that stalk-cell vacuoles originate from acidic vesicles and autophagosomes, which fuse to form autolysosomes. Their repeated fusion and expansion accompanied by concomitant cell wall formation enable the stalk cells to rapidly develop turgor pressure necessary to make the rigid stalk to hold the spores aloft. Contractile vacuoles, which are rich in H+-ATPase as in plant vacuoles, remained separate from these vacuoles. We further argue that AmtA may play an important role in the control of stalk-cell differentiation by modulating the pH of autolysosomes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Ohshima K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012
L1 elements are mammalian non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons, or long interspersed elements (LINEs), that significantly influence the dynamics and fluidity of the genome. A series of observations suggest that plant L1-clade LINEs, just as mammalian L1s, mobilize both short interspersed elements (SINEs) and certain messenger RNA by recognizing the 3′-poly(A) tail of RNA. However, one L1 lineage in monocots was shown to possess a conserved 3′-end sequence with a solid RNA structure also observed in maize and sorghum SINEs. This strongly suggests that plant LINEs require a particular 3′-end sequence during initiation of reverse transcription. As one L1-clade LINE was also found to share the 3′-end sequence with a SINE in a green algal genome, I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized the specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. © 2012 The Author.
Koyama T.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Kamemura K.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2015
The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and an imbalance in this bone metabolism leads to osteoporosis. Here, we found that osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells is promoted by the inactivation of O-linked β-. N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) and suppressed by the inactivation of O-GlcNAc transferase, as indicated by extracellular matrix calcification. The expression of osteogenic genes such as alp, ocn, and bsp during osteoblast differentiation was positively regulated in a O-GlcNAc glycosylation-dependent manner. Because it was confirmed that Ets1 and Runx2 are the two key transcription factors responsible for the expression of these osteogenic genes, their transcriptional activity might therefore be regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosylation. However, osteoclast differentiation of RAW264 cells, as indicated by the expression and activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, was unaffected by the inactivation of either O-GlcNAcase or O-GlcNAc transferase. Our findings suggest that an approach to manipulate O-GlcNAc glycosylation could be useful for developing the therapeutics for osteoporosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.