Yuseong gu, South Korea
Yuseong gu, South Korea

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Yu H.,Brain Bio | Yu H.,Bio Synergy Research Center | Choo S.,Brain Bio | Choo S.,Bio Synergy Research Center | And 8 more authors.
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Developing novel uses of approved drugs, called drug repositioning, can reduce costs and times in traditional drug development. Network-based approaches have presented promising results in this field. However, even though various types of interactions such as activation or inhibition exist in drug-target interactions and molecular pathways, most of previous network-based studies disregarded this information. Methods: We developed a novel computational method, Prediction of Drugs having Opposite effects on Disease genes (PDOD), for identifying drugs having opposite effects on altered states of disease genes. PDOD utilized drug-drug target interactions with 'effect type', an integrated directed molecular network with 'effect type' and 'effect direction', and disease genes with regulated states in disease patients. With this information, we proposed a scoring function to discover drugs likely to restore altered states of disease genes using the path from a drug to a disease through the drug-drug target interactions, shortest paths from drug targets to disease genes in molecular pathways, and disease gene-disease associations. Results: We collected drug-drug target interactions, molecular pathways, and disease genes with their regulated states in the diseases. PDOD is applied to 898 drugs with known drug-drug target interactions and nine diseases. We compared performance of PDOD for predicting known therapeutic drug-disease associations with the previous methods. PDOD outperformed other previous approaches which do not exploit directional information in molecular network. In addition, we provide a simple web service that researchers can submit genes of interest with their altered states and will obtain drugs seeming to have opposite effects on altered states of input genes at http://gto.kaist.ac.kr/pdod/index.php/main. Conclusions: Our results showed that 'effect type' and 'effect direction' information in the network based approaches can be utilized to identify drugs having opposite effects on diseases. Our study can offer a novel insight into the field of network-based drug repositioning. © 2015 Yu et al.

Hwang W.,Brain Bio | Hwang W.,Bio Synergy Research Center | Choi J.,Brain Bio | Kwon M.,Brain Bio | And 2 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2016

Background: It is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of individual drugs on patients to realize personalized medicine. Testing drugs on patients in clinical trial is the only way to evaluate the efficacy of drugs. The approach is labour intensive and requires overwhelming costs and a number of experiments. Therefore, preclinical model system has been intensively investigated for predicting the efficacy of drugs. Current computational drug sensitivity prediction approaches use general biological network modules as their prediction features. Therefore, they miss indirect effectors or the effects from tissue-specific interactions. Results: We developed cell line specific functional modules. Enriched scores of functional modules are utilized as cell line specific features to predict the efficacy of drugs. Cell line specific functional modules are clusters of genes, which have similar biological functions in cell line specific networks. We used linear regression for drug efficacy prediction. We assessed the prediction performance in leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). Our method was compared with elastic net model, which is a popular model for drug efficacy prediction. In addition, we analysed drug sensitivity-associated functions of five drugs - lapatinib, erlotinib, raloxifene, tamoxifen and gefitinib- by our model. Conclusions: Our model can provide cell line specific drug efficacy prediction and also provide functions which are associated with drug sensitivity. Therefore, we could utilize drug sensitivity associated functions for drug repositioning or for suggesting secondary drugs for overcoming drug resistance. © 2016 Hwang et al.

Kim D.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Unintended effects of drugs can be caused by various mechanisms. Conventional analysis of unintended effects has focused on the target proteins of drugs. However, an interaction with off-target tissues of a drug might be one of the unintended effect-related mechanisms. We propose two processes to predict a drug's unintended effects by off-target tissue effects: 1) identification of a drug's off-target tissue and; 2) tissue protein - symptom relation identification (tissue protein - symptom matrix). Using this method, we predicted that 1,177 (10.7%) side-effects were related to off-target tissue effects in 11,041 known side-effects. Off-target tissues and unintended effects of successful repositioning drugs were also predicted. The effectiveness of relations of the proposed tissue protein - symptom matrix were evaluated by using the literature mining method. We predicted unintended effects of drugs as well as those effect-related off-target tissues. By using our prediction, we are able to reduce drug side-effects on off-target tissues and provide a chance to identify new indications of drugs of interest. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | Bio Synergy Research Center and Brain Bio
Type: | Journal: Journal of biomedical informatics | Year: 2016

Drug repositioning is the process of finding new indications for existing drugs. Its importance has been dramatically increasing recently due to the enormous increase in new drug discovery cost. However, most of the previous molecular-centered drug repositioning work is not able to reflect the end-point physiological activities of drugs because of the inherent complexity of human physiological systems.Here, we suggest a novel computational framework to make inferences for alternative indications of marketed drugs by using electronic clinical information which reflects the end-point physiological results of drugs effects on the biological activities of humans. In this work, we use the concept of complementarity between clinical disease signatures and clinical drug effects. With this framework, we establish disease-related clinical variable vectors (clinical disease signature vectors) and drug-related clinical variable vectors (clinical drug effect vectors) by applying two methodologies (i.e., statistical analysis and literature mining). Finally, we assign a repositioning possibility score to each disease-drug pair by the calculation of complementarity (anti-correlation) and association between clinical states (up or down) of disease signatures and clinical effects (up, down or association) of drugs. A total of 717 clinical variables in the electronic clinical dataset (NHANES), are considered in this study.The statistical significance of our prediction results is supported through two benchmark datasets (Comparative Toxicogenomics Database and Clinical Trials). We discovered not only lots of known relationships between diseases and drugs, but also many hidden disease-drug relationships. For example, glutathione and edetic-acid may be investigated as candidate drugs for asthma treatment. We examined prediction results by using statistical experiments (enrichment verification, hyper-geometric and permutation test P<0.009 in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database and Clinical Trials) and presented evidences for those with already published literature.The results show that electronic clinical information is a feasible data resource and utilizing the complementarity (anti-correlated relationships) between clinical signatures of disease and clinical effects of drugs is a potentially predictive concept in drug repositioning research. It makes the proposed approach useful to identity novel relationships between diseases and drugs that have a high probability of being biologically valid.

Jung S.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.,Bio Synergy Research Center | Kim S.,Yonsei University | Nam H.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making | Year: 2015

Background: Alterations of a genome can lead to changes in protein functions. Through these genetic mutations, a protein can lose its native function (loss-of-function, LoF), or it can confer a new function (gain-of-function, GoF). However, when a mutation occurs, it is difficult to determine whether it will result in a LoF or a GoF. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a study that analyzes the genomic features of LoF and GoF instances to find features that can be used to classify LoF and GoF mutations. Methods: In order to collect experimentally verified LoF and GoF mutational information, we obtained 816 LoF mutations and 474 GoF mutations from a literature text-mining process. Next, with data-preprocessing steps, 258 LoF and 129 GoF mutations remained for a further analysis. We analyzed the properties of these LoF and GoF mutations. Among the properties, we selected features which show different tendencies between the two groups and implemented classifications using support vector machine, random forest, and linear logistic regression methods to confirm whether or not these features can identify LoF and GoF mutations. Results: We analyzed the properties of the LoF and GoF mutations and identified six features which have discriminative power between LoF and GoF conditions: the reference allele, the substituted allele, mutation type, mutation impact, subcellular location, and protein domain. When using the six selected features with the random forest, support vector machine, and linear logistic regression classifiers, the result showed accuracy levels of 72.23%, 71.28%, and 70.19%, respectively. Conclusions: We analyzed LoF and GoF mutations and selected several properties which were different between the two classes. By implementing classifications with the selected features, it is demonstrated that the selected features have good discriminative power. © 2015 Jung et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lee J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Lee D.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee D.,Bio Synergy Research Center
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Understanding how different genomic mutational landscapes in patients with cancer lead to different responses to anticancer drugs is an important challenge for realizing precision medicine for cancer. Many studies have analyzed the comprehensive anticancer drug-response profiles and genomic profiles of cancer cell lines to identify the relationship between the anticancer drug response and genomic alternations. However, few studies have focused on interpreting these profiles with a network perspective. In this work, we analyzed genomic alterations in cancer cell lines by considering which interactions in the signaling pathway were perturbed by mutations. With our interaction-centric approach, we identified novel interaction/drug response associations for two drugs (afatinib and ixabepilone) for which no gene-centric association could be found. When we compared the performance of classifiers for predicting the responses to 164 drugs, the classifiers trained with interaction-centric features outperformed the classifiers trained with gene-centric features, despite the smaller number of features (p-value = 2.0 × 10-3). By incorporating the interaction information from signaling pathways, we revealed associations between genomic alterations and drug responses that could be missed when using a gene-centric approach. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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