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Redmond, WA, United States

Bebell L.M.,Columbia University | Bebell L.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Pilcher C.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Dorsey G.,University of California at San Francisco | And 9 more authors.

OBJECTIVES: Acute febrile illnesses consistent with malaria are the most common presentation at health clinics in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 30-50% of outpatient visits. The symptoms of acute HIV infection can mimic acute malaria. We investigated whether acute HIV infections could be identified among adults with suspected malaria at rural health centers in Uganda. Design: A cross-sectional study of 1000 consecutive patients referred for malaria blood smears at each of seven government health centers, of which 2893 (41%) were 13 years or older and tested for HIV. Methods: HIV enzyme immunoassay antibody testing was performed on dried blood spots and confirmed by western blot. Enzyme immunoassay-nonreactive and enzyme immunoassay-reactive, western blot-unconfirmed samples were pooled (10/pool) and tested for HIV RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. We defined acute HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a negative or indeterminate HIV-1 western blot pattern and early HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a positive western blot pattern, but with a BED-corrected optical density of below 0.8. Results: Of 2893 patients evaluated, 324 (11%) had test results indicating HIV infection. Overall, 30 patients (1.0%) had acute HIV infection, 56 (1.8%) had early HIV infection, and 238 (8%) had established HIV infection. Acute HIV infections were more prevalent at sites with higher HIV prevalence and lower malaria endemicity. Conclusion: At multiple sites in Uganda, 1-3% of adults with suspected malaria had acute or early HIV infection. These findings highlight a major opportunity for expanding recognition of acute and early HIV infection in Africa. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Costello-Boerrigter L.C.,Mayo Medical School | Lapp H.,Helios Clinic | Lapp H.,Witten/Herdecke University | Boerrigter G.,Mayo Medical School | And 6 more authors.
JACC: Heart Failure

Objectives: Using a novel, specific assay for proBNP1-108, this study tested the hypotheses that proBNP1-108 is secreted by both nonfailing and failing human hearts and that proBNP1-108 secretion is increased in failing hearts. Background: The prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP1-108) is a 108-amino acid peptide produced primarily by the heart and cleaved into biologically active BNP1-32 and the biologically inactive NT-proBNP1-76. It is unknown to what extent increased cardiac proBNP1-108 secretion compared to reduced peripheral processing is responsible for elevated proBNP1-108 levels in patients with heart failure (HF) compared to subjects without HF. Methods: The transcardiac gradient of proBNP1-108 was determined by collecting arterial blood and blood from the coronary sinus (CS). Samples from subjects without overt heart disease (n = 9) were collected during cardiac catheterization after coronary artery disease had been excluded. Samples from HF patients (n = 21) were collected during implantation of a biventricular pacemaker. ProBNP1-108 was measured with a new assay. Values are medians (25th/75th percentiles). Results: The gradient of proBNP1-108 across the nonfailing hearts was 8 (2/20) ng/l (aorta: 15 [1/25] ng/l; CS: 24 [8/41] ng/l; p = 0.018). The transcardiac gradient of proBNP1-108 in the failing hearts was 326 (96/482) ng/l (arterial: 381 [201/586] ng/l; CS: 709 [408/1,087] ng/l; p<0.001). The transcardiac gradient was greater in failing than nonfailing hearts (p = 0.001). Conclusions: ProBNP1-108 is secreted by nonfailing and failing human hearts, but more so in the latter. It remains to be established where peripheral processing of proBNP1-108 occurs and how this is affected by disease. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Baume M.,Center National Of Reference Des Legionelles | Garrelly L.,Biocontrol | Facon J.P.,Bio Rad | Bouton S.,rue du Courtil Center daffaires 35170 | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology

Aims: The characterization and certification of a Legionella DNA quantitative reference material as a primary measurement standard for Legionella qPCR. Methods and Results: Twelve laboratories participated in a collaborative certification campaign. A candidate reference DNA material was analysed through PCR-based limiting dilution assays (LDAs). The validated data were used to statistically assign both a reference value and an associated uncertainty to the reference material. Conclusions: This LDA method allowed for the direct quantification of the amount of Legionella DNA per tube in genomic units (GU) and the determination of the associated uncertainties. This method could be used for the certification of all types of microbiological standards for qPCR. Significance and Impact of the Study: The use of this primary standard will improve the accuracy of Legionella qPCR measurements and the overall consistency of these measurements among different laboratories. The extensive use of this certified reference material (CRM) has been integrated in the French standard NF T90-471 (April 2010) and in the ISO Technical Specification 12 869 (Anon 2012 International Standardisation Organisation) for validating qPCR methods and ensuring the reliability of these methods. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

Touron-Bodilis A.,Electricite de France | Pougnard C.,Electricite de France | Frenkiel-Lebosse H.,Bio Rad | Hallier-Soulier S.,Center dAffaires
Journal of Applied Microbiology

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of quantification by real-time PCR as a management tool to monitor concentrations of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in industrial cooling systems and its ability to anticipate culture trends by the French standard method (AFNOR T90-431). Methods and Results: Quantifications of Legionella bacteria were achieved by both methods on samples from nine cooling systems with different water qualities. Proportion of positive samples for L. pneumophila quantified by PCR was clearly lower in deionized or river waters submitted to a biocide treatment than in raw river waters, while positive samples for Legionella spp. were quantified for almost all the samples. For some samples containing PCR inhibitors, high quantification limits (up to 4·80×105GUl-1) did not allow us to quantify L. pneumophila, when they were quantified by culture. Finally, the monitoring of concentrations of L. pneumophila by both methods showed similar trends for 57-100% of the samples. Conclusions: These results suggest that, if some methodological steps designed to reduce inhibitory problems and thus decrease the quantification limits, could be developed to quantify Legionella in complex waters, the real-time PCR could be a valuable complementary tool to monitor the evolution of L. pneumophila concentrations. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows the possibility of using real-time PCR to monitor L. pneumophila proliferations in cooling systems and the importance to adapt nucleic acid extraction and purification protocols to raw waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to French Government works. Source

Bio Rad Laboratories Inc. and Bio Rad | Date: 2005-09-20

Apparatus for analyses for non-medical use, namely, apparatus for crushing biological samples [ ; laboratory equipment and supplies, namely, test tubes, extraction spoons, samples tubes ]. Apparatus for analyses for medical use, namely, apparatus for crushing biological samples; apparatus for analyses for veterinary use, namely, apparatus for crushing biological samples.

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