Koga N.,Nakamura Gakuen University |
Ohta C.,Nakamura Gakuen University |
Kato Y.,Tokushima Bunri University |
Endo T.,Health Sciences University of Hokkaido |
And 3 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2011
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the liver metabolize drugs prior to excretion, with different enzymes acting at different molecular motifs. At present, the human CYPs responsible for the metabolism of the flavonoid, nobiletin (NBL), are unidentified. We investigated which enzymes were involved using human liver microsomes and 12 cDNA-expressed human CYPs. Human liver microsomes metabolized NBL to three mono-demethylated metabolites (4′-OH-, 7-OH- and 6-OH-NBL) with a relative ratio of 1:4.1:0.5, respectively, by aerobic incubation with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Of 12 human CYPs, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 showed high activity for the formation of 4′-OH-NBL. CYP3A4 catalyzed the formation of 7-OH-NBL with the highest activity and of 6-OH-NBL with lower activity. CYP3A5 also catalyzed the formation of both metabolites but considerably more slowly than CYP3A4. In contrast, seven CYPs (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1) were inactive for NBL. Both ketoconazole and troleandomycin (CYP3A inhibitors) almost completely inhibited the formation of 7-OH- and 6-OH-NBL. Similarly, α-naphthoflavone (CYP1A1 inhibitor) and furafylline (CYP1A2 inhibitor) significantly decreased the formation of 4′-OH-NBL. These results suggest that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are the key enzymes in human liver mediating the oxidative demethylation of NBL in the B-ring and A-ring, respectively. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Fujii Y.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Ohnishi M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Tsuga K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food | Year: 2014
We performed a Customer Satisfaction (CS) Portfolio analysis targeted at farmers who had bought a Welsh onion harvester. Subsequently we also performed a conjoint analysis to assess farmers' preferences for simulated concepts of an improved harvester based on their likes and dislikes. Our results showed that farmers had high expectations of but low satisfaction with some attributes (e.g., price), while they had low expectations but high satisfaction with other attributes (e.g., earth separation performance). It also showed that the responding farmers with a greater area under cultivation were more interested in the size of the harvester and its working efficiency than in price. These results suggest ideas for machine development and improvement and their order of priority. © 2014, Asian Agricultural and Biological Engineering Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights.
Kanai G.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Kato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Umeda N.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Okada K.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science |
Matsuzaki M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly | Year: 2010
We examined drying condition and its effects on qualities of rapeseed and sunflower, especially on oil qualities as measured by POV (peroxide value), AV (acid value) and color of oil. Initial moisture contents for rapeseed (Norin-48, Kirariboshi) were 38.7% w.b., 31.1% and 15.1% and for sunflower (Pioneer 63M80, Harurinzo) 31.5% w.b. and 15.8%. Each sample was dried unheated in a ventilation dryer for 24 hr, dried in an oven at 45°C, 55°C or 65°C for 24 hr, or dried in a circulating dryer (capacity: 1t) at unheated-55°C for 11 hr. Samples were expressed for oil with a small expeller. The oil samples were examined for POV, AV and the color of oil. POV of rapeseed oil was from 0.8 meq/kg for 45°C drying with 15.1% initial moisture content to 10.8 meq/kg for 65°C with 38.7% initial moisture content. POV of sunflower oil was from 1.9 meq/kg for 45°C drying with 15.8% initial moisture content to 6.8 meq/kg for 65°C with 31.5% initial moisture content. The early harvested rapeseed dried under higher temperature conditions had not only low oil quality measured by POV but also a green color stemming from chlorophyll. For AV a tendency that grain with higher moisture contents had higher AV was implied. According to the results, to avoid the degradation of oil quality the grain should be mature and initial moisture contents low enough to prevent deterioration; if the harvested rapeseed or sunflower grain have high moisture content, drying at lower temperatures is better to maintain the qualities of oil.
Bai G.,Niigata University |
Nakano K.,Niigata University |
Ohashi S.,Niigata University |
Mizukami T.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
And 3 more authors.
Atomization and Sprays | Year: 2016
Flat-fan air inclusion nozzles, usually with a high-pressure range of 1-1.5 MPa, have been widely used as one of the best drift control methods on agricultural boom sprayers in Japan. To get a better understanding of the relationship between the nozzle design parameters (pre-orifice diameter and final orifice area) and the initial spray characteristics (droplet size characteristics, spray angle, liquid flow rate, and included air within droplets), the influence of the above parameters of the KIRINASHI ES series nozzles on the initial spray characteristics was investigated under different nozzle pressures. The results show that the pre-orifice diameter, final orifice area, and nozzle pressure significantly affect the volume median diameter (Dv0.5). In addition, the nozzle pressure and the pre-orifice diameter had positive correlations with the spray angle while the pre-orifice diameter and the final orifice area significantly influenced the spray liquid density which can indicate the quantity of included air within droplets. The corresponding multivariate regression analysis was carried out and relatively high values of the coefficient of determinations (R2) were obtained between several nozzle parameters and the Dv0.5, and also the spray liquid density and the liquid flow rate. © 2016 by Begell House, Inc.
Tamura M.,Chiba University |
Nagai T.,Chiba University |
Hidaka Y.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Noda T.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
And 2 more authors.
Food Structure | Year: 2014
Textural-related property including histological tissue structure changes in rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) during cooking process was investigated in this study. Forty grams of polished grain were added to 60. ml of water, and cooked using the Japanese style cooking method. Rice grains were removed at 30, 50, 70, 85, and 100. °C during cooking, and moisture content, overall firmness, surface firmness, and histological tissue structures were examined. The leached material amount in cooking water at each temperature was also measured. Results showed moisture content in rice grains linearly increased from 70. °C to 100. °C, while moisture remained almost constant at from 30. °C to 50. °C. The overall firmness almost linearly decreased from 30. °C to 85. °C and decreased from 85. °C to 100. °C significantly, though no significant difference in surface firmness change between 70. °C and 85. °C was found. The leached material amount increased approximately 1.5 times between 50. °C and 70. °C. Voids in the cooked grains were generated between 85. °C and 100. °C, where gelatinization and morphological changes in grain shape, with histological cell wall disruptions occurred. The results shown in this study indicate that structural tissue properties, i.e. cell wall properties, are one of the important factors responsible for the textural-related properties of cooked rice grains. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Nguyen V.N.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Inaba S.,Saga University
Journal of Terramechanics | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural tire characteristics on variations of wheel load and vibrations transmitted from the ground to the tractor rear axle. The experiments were conducted on an asphalt road and a sandy loam field using a two-wheel-drive self-propelled farm tractor at different combinations of tractor forward speeds of approximately 0.6, 1.6 and 2.6 m/s, and tire inflation pressures of 330 and 80 kPa. During experiments, the vertical wheel load of the left and right rear wheels, and the roll, bounce and pitch accelerations of the rear axle center were measured using strain-gage-based transducers and a triaxial accelerometer. The wavelet and Fourier analyses were applied to measured data in order to investigate the effects of self-excitations due to non-uniformity and lugs of tires on the wheel-load fluctuation and rear axle vibrations. Values for the root-mean-square (RMS) wheel loads and accelerations were not strictly proportional and inversely proportional to the forward speed and tire pressure respectively. The time histories and frequency compositions of synthesized data have shown that tire non-uniformity and tire lugs significantly excited the wheel load and accelerations at their natural frequencies and harmonics. These effects were strongly affected by the forward speed, tire pressure and ground deformation. © 2010 ISTVS. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsuo Y.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Yukumoto O.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Noguchi N.,Hokkaido University
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly | Year: 2012
The tilling robot mainly comprises: a robot vehicle called ROBOTRA, which is remodeled to control parts of commercially available tractors automatically, a navigation system called XNAV, which detects and outputs robot positioning information using an auto-tracking type surveying device, and a controller with read operation software to execute path planning and control the robot vehicle. The robot has ability almost equivalent to that of customary manned-driven tractors and can perform unmanned rotary tilling on a rectangular field. To improve its adaptability during unmanned operation, we remodeled it so that it could perform path operations differing from customary rotary tilling and performed field tests. We proposed two different path operation methods: "diagonal operation"; performing returning straight operations diagonally against the longer side of the field; and "round operation"; performing straight operations parallel to the four sides in the entire field area, and developed a software package for the same. Following field tests using the software, we confirmed that favorable unmanned operation could be achieved through both methods.
Yamamoto S.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Ochiai Y.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Saito S.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Hayashi S.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2012
To reduce the labor involved in strawberry production in Japan, we have developed an automatic packing system for strawberries that packs the fruits methodically in returnable trays or in single-layer trays. The system comprises a supply unit and a packing unit. Each unit has machine vision system, a manipulator, and a suction hand that are operated in parallel. The supply unit is in charge of detecting a fruit in a random posture in a harvesting container, picking it up, and gently placing it on the conveyer. The packing unit then locates the orientation and the position of the supplied fruit on the conveyer, grades it according to its estimated weight, picks it up, and places it in the shipping tray. Performance tests in a production area showed the task success rate of the automatic packing system to be 97.3%, with a process time per fruit of 7.3 s. Matching the rates of manual grading and by machine vision system, however, showed variation from 59.0% to 85.2% depending on grade, while the estimation error of fruit weight ranged from -1.9 g to +2.0 g. We also conducted performance tests for individual units. The rate of damaged fruits was 4.1% at the supply unit and 2.7% at the packing unit. The postures of packed fruits were analyzed, showing a significant difference between the results from the packing unit and those from manual operation. Further study should be needed especially for the reduction of bruises on fruits and the uniformity of postures of packed fruits.
Ichiki H.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution |
Nguyen Van N.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agricultural and Forestry |
Yoshinaga K.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food | Year: 2013
This study provides an overview of soil mechanical conditioning and the development of a low-cost stone-clod separator for a new cultivation system (NCS) of potatoes in Hokkaido. Field tests showed that the soil-crushing performance and the working hours of the developed separator were the same as those of an expensive imported machine. The quantity of clods conveyed to the furrows and the working hours of the developed separator were 5.6 t / ha and 0.45 ha / h, respectively. The NCS had several advantages over the conventional cultivation system, such as significantly (p ≤ 0.01) fewer distorted potatoes and significantly (p ≤ 0.01) fewer stone-clods mixed with potatoes during machine harvesting. The NCS also reduced labor input for potato harvesting by approximately 28 %.
Jang S.,University of Tsukuba |
Kitamura Y.,University of Tsukuba |
Yoshida S.,University of Tsukuba |
Yamasaki H.,Bio oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2011
Nagamo (Sargassum horneri) processing residue was extracted using a hot water extraction method at various temperatures and solvent/material ratios and analyzed for total sugar (TS). The extraction characteristics of TS were characterized by Peleg's model, and the optimum extraction conditions for the Nagamo processing residue were obtained at 85°C at a solvent/material ratio of 5. At experimental temperatures and solvent/material ratios, the TS content increased rapidly for the first 2 h and then reached the equilibrium concentration. Additionally, the antioxidant activity (SOD) of the extraction was 60.8% or higher. Thus, it was concluded that the Nagamo processing residue contains biologically active polysaccharides, which can be obtained by using a transportable 400 L-batch extraction process with hot water.