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Tisserat B.,Functional Foods Research unit | O'Kuru R.H.,Bio Oils Research Unit | Hwang H.,Functional Foods Research unit | Mohamed A.A.,King Saud University | Holser R.,Richard Russell Research Center
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare polyesters from citric acid: glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short-term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 s at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous polyesters. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that citric acid and glycerol blends can form highly stable polymers composed of ester bonds. The glycerol citrate polyester polymers exhibited the least degradation in water, more in acid solutions (0.1-1.0M HCl), and the most deterioration in strong alkaline solutions (0.1-1.0M NaOH) after 72 h soakings. Polyesters of glycerol and citric acid were studied with differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The polyesters were found to be thermally stable (up to 313°C). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chung Y.-W.,Northwestern University | Wang J.,Northwestern University | Ajayi O.,Argonne National Laboratory | Biresaw G.,Bio Oils Research Unit | And 7 more authors.
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2011

This article summarizes the discussions and deliberations on transformative research issues and opportunities in energy efficiency identified by a panel of experts assembled for the Civil, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Innovation Division of the US National Science Foundation. The discussions were confined to two areas - reducing energy consumption in buildings and improving energy efficiency in transportation. While these represent only a very small segment of important areas in energy efficiency, the panel considered them to be the most promising in terms of return on investment in research efforts. In the area of reducing energy consumption in buildings, high-priority research topics include information technology infrastructure for fundamental data gathering, processing and management, whole system and process integration for design and operation of smart buildings, and high-performance building components and sub-systems. In the area of energy efficiency in transportation, high-priority research topics include development of high-temperature high-performance ferrous alloys, systems design of protective coatings, fundamental understanding of surface texturing effects on friction and wear, and development of oxidatively stable bio-based lubricants. The energy challenge is serious. We need sustained investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and talent development in these new technologies for the future of our civilization. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doll K.M.,Bio Oils Research Unit | Erhan S.Z.,Eastern Regional Research Center
Journal of Laboratory Automation | Year: 2011

A method to evaluate adhesives has been developed and used to reformulate a recently patented adhesive which is based on sugar and citric acid. Factors affecting adhesive performance were uncovered, such as an optimal curing temperature of 60 °C. The addition of maltodextrin and soy protein at optimized levels was shown to nearly double the bonding strength of the adhesive, from 0.46 ± 0.076 to 0.74 ± 0.26 kN, under our test conditions. Also discussed is the potential for this method to be automated using commercially available equipment. © 2011 by the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

Tisserat B.,National United University | Reifschneider L.,Illinois State University | O'Kuru R.H.,Bio Oils Research Unit | Finkenstadt V.L.,Plant Polymer Research Unit
BioResources | Year: 2013

Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) was evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composed of 25% by weight DDGS and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection molding. An improved DDGS bio-filler was produced by solvent treating DDGS (STDDGS). Injection-molded test specimens were evaluated for their tensile, flexural, impact, and thermal properties. Composite blends composed of STDDGS were superior to their DDSG counterparts. Composites made with STDDGS and MAPE had significantly improved tensile and flexural properties compared to neat HDPE. Impact strength of all composites was similar and lower than neat HDPE. Soaking of tensile bars of the various PE-DDGS blends in distilled water for 28 days altered their physical, color, and mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimetery and thermogravimetric analysis were conducted on neat HDPE and DDGS composites to evaluate their thermal properties.

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