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Nomura J.,Bio-Medical Research Limited | Nomura J.,University of Lausanne | So A.,University of Lausanne | Tamura M.,Bio-Medical Research Limited | Busso N.,University of Lausanne
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

Activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome initiates an inflammatory response, which is associated with host defense against pathogens and the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and atherosclerosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1β processing in response to various stimuli, including extracellular ATP, although the roles of intracellular ATP (iATP) in NLRP3 activation remain unclear. In this study, we found that in activated macrophages artificial reduction of iATP by 2-deoxyglucose, a glycolysis inhibitor, caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization, leading to IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation. Additionally, the NLRP3 activators nigericin and monosodium urate crystals lowered iATP through K+- and Ca2+-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting a feedback loop between iATP loss and lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrate the fundamental roles of iATP in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and regulation of IL-1β secretion, and they suggest that maintenance of the intracellular ATP pools could be a strategy for countering NLRP3-mediated inflammation. © 2015 The Authors.


Patent
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2012-05-23

The invention relates to facial stimulation apparatus configured to be worn in a generally horizontal orientation on a users head, and which uses the ear (14) as an anatomical reference to ensure correct and repeatable placement of skin electrodes (16a,16b) overlying the human facial nerves (1-5) to facilitate Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). The apparatus is provided with a headband (22) having a bend or deviation (24) proximate a distal portion (20) thereof on which the electrodes (16a, 16b) are attached. The internal angle of each non-adjustable bend or deviation (24) extends out of the general plane within which the remainder of the headband (22) lies and defines an unambiguous location feature which ensures repeatable and accurate positioning of each electrode (16a, 16b). The apparatus overcomes problems inherent in known devices and, in particular, requires no anatomical knowledge on the part of the end user for its safe and most effective placement.


Patent
Bio-Medical Research Limited and University College Dublin | Date: 2010-01-08

A method of and apparatus for stimulating pelvic floor muscles in a patient comprises applying at least one electrode externally to each side of the patients body in the region of the pelvis, and energising the electrodes to apply a muscular stimulation current which flows laterally across the patient through the patients pelvic floor. Preferably a plurality of electrodes are applied symmetrically on each side of the body. The electrodes may be incorporated in a garment.


Patent
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2010-06-16

A method and apparatus for stimulating the lower back and abdominal muscles in a patient comprising applying a first electrode A1/A2 substantially centrally to the lower lumbar region of the patients body, and applying second and third electrodes B, C respectively to opposite side flanks of the patients body. The electrodes are energised to apply a first group of muscular stimulation current pulses which flow between the second and third electrodes and a second group of muscular stimulation current pulses which flow between the first electrode and the second and third electrodes alternately.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2012-04-23

Medical apparatus, instruments, equipment and devices for the treatment of incontinence in humans.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2014-02-03

Computer networking and data communications equipment; point to point communications equipment; programmable controllers; power controllers; computer controllers; electronic controllers; communications controllers; electrical controllers; controllers (regulators); electric and electronic components; battery chargers; electric battery chargers; application software; computer software applications (downloadable); smartphones. Medical apparatus and instruments; apparatus and instruments used to electrically stimulate subcutaneous muscles, and increase tone, strength and physical performance for health and medical purposes; electrical apparatus and instruments used as aids to slimming, facial toning, massaging, muscle toning and beauty care; abdominal belts; medical electrodes; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation electrodes; parts and fittings for all of the aforesaid goods. Body building and face training apparatus and instruments, namely apparatus and instruments for the strengthening and toning of muscles including facial muscles; parts and fittings for all of the aforesaid goods.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2015-08-31

Medical apparatus, instruments, equipment and devices for the treatment, control or prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence in females and males, namely pelvic floor muscle strengthening devices, pelvic floor neuromodulators, pelvic floor strength detection devices, sacral neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices, and sacral neuromodulators to treat and assess urinary and fecal incontinence, with treatment data processed and displayed on a hand held controller or mobile computing device, for use in direct association with patient monitoring, diagnosis and treatment.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2015-11-13

Medical apparatus, instruments, equipment and devices for the treatment, control or prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence in females and males, namely pelvic floor muscle strengthening devices, pelvic floor neuromodulators, pelvic floor strength detection devices, sacral neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices, and sacral neuromodulators to treat and assess urinary and fecal incontinence, with treatment data processed and displayed on a hand held controller or mobile computing device, for use in direct association with patient monitoring, diagnosis and treatment.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2012-04-23

Medical apparatus, instruments, equipment and devices for the treatment of incontinence in humans.


Trademark
Bio-Medical Research Limited | Date: 2015-02-12

Medical equipment in the nature of medical apparatus, instruments and devices all for the treatment, control or prevention of incontinence in humans; medical apparatus, namely, neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices for use in the control of incontinence; urinary incontinence devices for medical purposes; female urinary incontinence medical devices.

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