Ferrari R.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Lupi M.,Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri |
Falcetta F.,Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri |
Bigini P.,Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri |
And 8 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2014
Studies of cellular internalization of nanoparticles (NPs) play a paramount role for the design of efficient drug delivery systems, but so far they lack a robust experimental technique able to quantify the NP uptake in terms of number of NPs internalized in each cell. In this work we propose a novel method which provides a quantitative evaluation of fluorescent NP uptake by combining flow cytometry and plate fluorimetry with measurements of number of cells. Single cell fluorescence signals measured by flow cytometry were associated with the number of internalized NPs, exploiting the observed linearity between average flow cytometric fluorescence and overall plate fluorimeter measures, and previous calibration of the microplate reader with serial dilutions of NPs. This precise calibration has been made possible by using biocompatible fluorescent NPs in the range of 20-300 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, functionalized with a covalently bonded dye, Rhodamine B, and synthesized via emulsion free-radical polymerization. We report the absolute number of NPs internalized in mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1) as a function of time for different NP dimensions and surface charges and at several exposure concentrations. The obtained results indicate that 4T1 cells incorporated 103-104 polymer NPs in a short time, reaching an intracellular concentration 15 times higher than the external one. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source
Fiordaliso F.,Unit of Bio Imaging |
Clerici G.,Diabetic Foot Center |
Maggioni S.,Unit of Bio Imaging |
Caminiti M.,Diabetic Foot Center |
And 7 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2016
Aims/hypothesis: We investigated the significance of microangiopathy in the development of foot ulcer, which is still disputed. Methods: We assessed microangiopathy by histological analysis of the capillary ultrastructure using transmission electron microscopy and capillary density and arteriolar morphology in paraffin-embedded sections from the skin of type 2 diabetic patients: 30 neuroischaemic patients (Isc) revascularised with peripheral angioplasty and 30 neuropathic patients (Neu) with foot ulcer, compared with ten non-diabetic volunteers. Results: In the diabetic patients, capillaries in the dermal papillary layer were fewer (−22.2%, 159 ± 43 vs 205 ± 52 mm2 in non-diabetic volunteers, p < 0.01). They also showed detrimental remodelling, with a 2.2-fold increase in capillary basement membrane thickness (3.44 ± 1.19 vs 1.53 ± 0.34 μm in non-diabetic volunteers, p < 0.001) and a 57.7% decrease in lumen area (14.6 ± 11.1 vs 34.7 ± 27.5 μm2, p < 0.001). No differences were observed between the diabetic Isc or Neu patients. Isc were more prone to develop arteriolar occlusion than Neu (16.8 ± 6.9% vs 6.7 ± 3.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). No patient had been amputated at 30 days and healing time was significantly longer in Isc (180 ± 120 vs 64 ± 50 days in Neu, p < 0.001). Conclusions/interpretation: Capillary microangiopathy is present in equal measure in neuroischaemic and neuropathic diabetic foot skin. The predominance of arteriolar occlusions with neuroischaemia indicated the existence of an additional ‘small vessel disease’ that did not affect an effective revascularisation and did not worsen the prognosis of major amputations but slowed the healing process of the neuroischaemic foot ulcer. Trial registration:: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02610036. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source