Düsseldorf, Germany
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Zhou T.-B.,Sun Yat Sen University | Ou C.,Guangxi Medical University | Qin Y.-H.,Guangxi Medical University | Lei F.-Y.,Guangxi Medical University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2014

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1B (LMX1B) is a transcription factor of the LIM homeodomain type and has been implicated in the development of diverse structures such as limbs, kidneys, eyes, and the brain. Furthermore, LMX1B has been implicated in nail-patella syndrome, which is predominantly characterized by malformation of limbs and nails, and in 30% of patients, nephropathy, including renal fibrosis, is observed. Since no reports were available that studied the link between LMX1B expression and renal interstitial fibrosis, we explored if LMX1B affects typical markers of fibrosis, e.g., extracellular matrix components, profibrotic factors, and apoptosis as the final detrimental consequence. We recently showed that LMX1B acts as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-β1, collagen type III, fibronectin, cleaved caspase-3, and the cell apoptosis rate in a renal tubular epithelial cell system under hypoxic conditions. Here, we confirmed these results in unilateral ureteral obstructed rats. Furthermore, LMX1B was distinctly expressed throughout the glomerulus and tubule lining, including epithelial cells. Knockdown of LMX1B aggravated the expression of fibrosis markers, oxidative stress, and apoptosis compared with the already increased levels due to unilateral ureteral obstruction, whereas overexpression attenuated these effects. In conclusion, reduced LMX1B levels clearly represent a risk factor for renal fibrosis, whereas overexpression affords some level of protection. In general, LMX1B may be considered to be a negative regulator of the fibrosis index, transforming growth factor-β1, collagen type III, fibronectin, cleaved caspase-3, cell apoptosis, ROS, and malondialdehyde (r = -0.756, -0.698, -0.921, -0.923, -0.843, -0.794, -0.883, and -0.825, all P < 0.01). © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Drummen G.P.C.,Bio and Nano Solutions | Drummen G.P.C.,University of Duisburg - Essen
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2010

Imagine devices or particles so small that they are invisible to the naked eye. Imagine that such entities could be used to patrol our bodies and autonomously augment endogenous defense and repair mechanisms. Imagine the defeat of illness at a fraction of the current costs. Bionanotechnology is the field of science that deals with just that: the development of imaging, tracking, targeting, sensing, diagnostic, and eventually therapeutic capabilities based on particles in the nanometer range, i.e., "nanoparticles". Within the extensive group of nanoparticles, semiconducting quantum dots play a central and prominent role. Quantum dots excel at a myriad of physical properties, most notably their fluorescent properties, such as high quantum yield, photo-stability, broad absorption spectra, and their remarkable size-dependent emission-tunability. © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International.


Chen S.-K.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Hsu C.-H.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Hsu C.-H.,Food and Beverage | Tsai M.-L.,National Taiwan Ocean University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS' functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Seo Y.C.,Kangwon National University | Choi W.Y.,Kangwon National University | Lee C.G.,Kangwon National University | Cha S.W.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2-3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B and T-cells on average at a ~2-3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune cell activities, including proliferation, cytokine secretion, and antibody production. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kalra H.,La Trobe University | Drummen G.P.C.,Bio and Nano Solutions | Mathivanan S.,La Trobe University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

Intercellular communication was long thought to be regulated exclusively through direct contact between cells or via release of soluble molecules that transmit the signal by binding to a suitable receptor on the target cell, and/or via uptake into that cell. With the discovery of small secreted vesicular structures that contain complex cargo, both in their lumen and the lipid membrane that surrounds them, a new frontier of signal transduction was discovered. These “extracellular vesicles” (EV) were initially thought to be garbage bags through which the cell ejected its waste. Whilst this is a major function of one type of EV, i.e., apoptotic bodies, many EVs have intricate functions in intercellular communication and compound exchange; although their physiological roles are still ill-defined. Additionally, it is now becoming increasingly clear that EVs mediate disease progression and therefore studying EVs has ignited significant interests among researchers from various fields of life sciences. Consequently, the research effort into the pathogenic roles of EVs is significantly higher even though their protective roles are not well established. The “Focus on extracellular vesicles” series of reviews highlights the current state of the art regarding various topics in EV research, whilst this review serves as an introductory overview of EVs, their biogenesis and molecular composition. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Ohno S.-I.,Tokyo Medical University | Drummen G.P.C.,Bio and Nano Solutions | Kuroda M.,Tokyo Medical University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

Many types of cells release phospholipid membrane vesicles thought to play key roles in cell-cell communication, antigen presentation, and the spread of infectious agents. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry various proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs), like a “message in a bottle” to cells in remote locations. The encapsulated molecules are protected from multiple types of degradative enzymes in body fluids, making EVs ideal for delivering drugs. This review presents an overview of the potential roles of EVs as natural drugs and novel drug-delivery systems. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Zamiri R.,University Putra Malaysia | Zakaria A.,University Putra Malaysia | Ahangar H.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Darroudi M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver-starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a bandwidth of ~6 nm 'full width at half maximum' (FWHM). Stability measurements showed no significant changes in mean particle size or agglomeration or even flocculation. However, zeta potential measurements showed that optimal double layer charge is achieved at 30 Hz. Consequently, Ag-NP synthesis via the laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS) method in starch solution seems to be a trade-off between small size and narrow size distributions and inherent and long-term stability. © 2013 Zamiri et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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