Bio 21 Institute

Parkville, Australia

Bio 21 Institute

Parkville, Australia
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Jacobs S.E.,Neonatal Services | Jacobs S.E.,Critical Care and Neurosciences Group | Tobin J.M.,North West Academic Center | Opie G.F.,Mercy Hospital for Women | And 8 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Late-onset sepsis frequently complicates prematurity, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Probiotics may reduce mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, with unclear effect on late-onset sepsis. This study aimed to determine the effect of administering a specific combination of probiotics to very preterm infants on culture-proven late-onset sepsis. METHODS: A prospective multicenter, double-blinded, placebocontrolled, randomized trial compared daily administration of a probiotic combination (Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, containing 1 3 109 total organisms) with placebo (maltodextrin) in infants born before 32 completed weeks' gestation weighing ,1500 g. The primary outcome was at least 1 episode of definite late-onset sepsis. RESULTS: Between October 2007 and November 2011, 1099 very preterm infants from Australia and New Zealand were randomized. Rates of definite late-onset sepsis (16.2%), NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (4.4%), and mortality (5.1%) were low in controls, with high breast milk feeding rates (96.9%). No significant difference in definite late-onset sepsis or all-cause mortality was found, but this probiotic combination reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (2.0% versus 4.4%; relative risk 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93, P = .03; number needed to treat 43, 95% confidence interval 23 to 333). CONCLUSIONS: The probiotics B infantis, S thermophilus, and B lactis significantly reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more in very preterm infants, but not definite late-onset sepsis or mortality. Treatment with this combination of probiotics appears to be safe. Pediatrics 2013;132:1055- 1062. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Amir L.H.,La Trobe University | Cullinane M.,La Trobe University | Garland S.M.,Bio 21 Institute | Garland S.M.,University of Melbourne | And 12 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2011

Background: The CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study will investigate the micro-organisms involved in the development of mastitis and "breast thrush" among breastfeeding women. To date, the organism(s) associated with the development of breast thrush have not been identified. The CASTLE study will also investigate the impact of physical health problems and breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological health in the early postpartum period.Methods/Design: The CASTLE study is a longitudinal descriptive study designed to investigate the role of Staphylococcus spp (species) and Candida spp in breast pain and infection among lactating women, and to describe the transmission dynamics of S. aureus and Candida spp between mother and infant. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum health problems as well as maternal psychological well-being is also being investigated. A prospective cohort of four hundred nulliparous women who are at least thirty six weeks gestation pregnant are being recruited from two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (November 2009 to June 2011). At recruitment, nasal, nipple (both breasts) and vaginal swabs are taken and participants complete a questionnaire asking about previous known staphylococcal and candidal infections. Following the birth, participants are followed-up six times: in hospital and then at home weekly until four weeks postpartum. Participants complete a questionnaire at each time points to collect information about breastfeeding problems and postpartum health problems. Nasal and nipple swabs and breast milk samples are collected from the mother. Oral and nasal swabs are collected from the baby. A telephone interview is conducted at eight weeks postpartum to collect information about postpartum health problems and breastfeeding problems, such as mastitis and nipple and breast pain.Discussion: This study is the first longitudinal study of the role of both staphylococcal and candidal colonisation in breast infections and will help to resolve the current controversy about which is the primary organism in the condition known as breast thrush. This study will also document transmission dynamics of S. aureus and Candida spp between mother and infant. In addition, CASTLE will investigate the impact of common maternal physical health symptoms and the effect of breastfeeding problems on maternal psychological well-being. © 2011 Amir et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Garland S.M.,Bio 21 Institute | Garland S.M.,University of Melbourne | Garland S.M.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Tobin J.M.,University of Melbourne | And 14 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Late onset sepsis is a frequent complication of prematurity associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the development of healthy immune responses. Healthy term infants acquire these commensal organisms rapidly after birth. However, colonisation in preterm infants is adversely affected by delivery mode, antibiotic treatment and the intensive care environment. Altered microbiota composition may lead to increased colonisation with pathogenic bacteria, poor immune development and susceptibility to sepsis in the preterm infant.Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Amongst numerous bacteriocidal and nutritional roles, they may also favourably modulate host immune responses in local and remote tissues. Meta-analyses of probiotic supplementation in preterm infants report a reduction in mortality and necrotising enterocolitis. Studies with sepsis as an outcome have reported mixed results to date.Allergic diseases are increasing in incidence in "westernised" countries. There is evidence that probiotics may reduce the incidence of these diseases by altering the intestinal microbiota to influence immune function.Methods/Design: This is a multi-centre, randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled trial investigating supplementing preterm infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation weighing < 1500 g, with a probiotic combination (Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis). A total of 1,100 subjects are being recruited in Australia and New Zealand. Infants commence the allocated intervention from soon after the start of feeds until discharge home or term corrected age. The primary outcome is the incidence of at least one episode of definite (blood culture positive) late onset sepsis before 40 weeks corrected age or discharge home. Secondary outcomes include: Necrotising enterocolitis, mortality, antibiotic usage, time to establish full enteral feeds, duration of hospital stay, growth measurements at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and evidence of atopic conditions at 12 months' corrected age.Discussion: Results from previous studies on the use of probiotics to prevent diseases in preterm infants are promising. However, a large clinical trial is required to address outstanding issues regarding safety and efficacy in this vulnerable population. This study will address these important issues.Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN012607000144415. The product "ABC Dophilus Probiotic Powder for Infants®", Solgar, USA has its 3 probiotics strains registered with the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures) as BB-12 15954, B-02 96579, Th-4 15957. © 2011 Garland et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Bio 21 Institute
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2011

Late onset sepsis is a frequent complication of prematurity associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the development of healthy immune responses. Healthy term infants acquire these commensal organisms rapidly after birth. However, colonisation in preterm infants is adversely affected by delivery mode, antibiotic treatment and the intensive care environment. Altered microbiota composition may lead to increased colonisation with pathogenic bacteria, poor immune development and susceptibility to sepsis in the preterm infant.Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Amongst numerous bacteriocidal and nutritional roles, they may also favourably modulate host immune responses in local and remote tissues. Meta-analyses of probiotic supplementation in preterm infants report a reduction in mortality and necrotising enterocolitis. Studies with sepsis as an outcome have reported mixed results to date.Allergic diseases are increasing in incidence in westernised countries. There is evidence that probiotics may reduce the incidence of these diseases by altering the intestinal microbiota to influence immune function.This is a multi-centre, randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled trial investigating supplementing preterm infants born at < 32 weeks gestation weighing < 1500 g, with a probiotic combination (Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis). A total of 1,100 subjects are being recruited in Australia and New Zealand. Infants commence the allocated intervention from soon after the start of feeds until discharge home or term corrected age. The primary outcome is the incidence of at least one episode of definite (blood culture positive) late onset sepsis before 40 weeks corrected age or discharge home. Secondary outcomes include: Necrotising enterocolitis, mortality, antibiotic usage, time to establish full enteral feeds, duration of hospital stay, growth measurements at 6 and 12 months corrected age and evidence of atopic conditions at 12 months corrected age.Results from previous studies on the use of probiotics to prevent diseases in preterm infants are promising. However, a large clinical trial is required to address outstanding issues regarding safety and efficacy in this vulnerable population. This study will address these important issues.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN012607000144415The product ABC Dophilus Probiotic Powder for Infants, Solgar, USA has its 3 probiotics strains registered with the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ--German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures) as BB-12 15954, B-02 96579, Th-4 15957.


PubMed | Bio 21 Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Late-onset sepsis frequently complicates prematurity, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Probiotics may reduce mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, with unclear effect on late-onset sepsis. This study aimed to determine the effect of administering a specific combination of probiotics to very preterm infants on culture-proven late-onset sepsis.A prospective multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial compared daily administration of a probiotic combination (Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, containing 1 10(9) total organisms) with placebo (maltodextrin) in infants born before 32 completed weeks gestation weighing <1500 g. The primary outcome was at least 1 episode of definite late-onset sepsis.Between October 2007 and November 2011, 1099 very preterm infants from Australia and New Zealand were randomized. Rates of definite late-onset sepsis (16.2%), NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (4.4%), and mortality (5.1%) were low in controls, with high breast milk feeding rates (96.9%). No significant difference in definite late-onset sepsis or all-cause mortality was found, but this probiotic combination reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (2.0% versus 4.4%; relative risk 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93, P = .03; number needed to treat 43, 95% confidence interval 23 to 333).The probiotics B infantis, S thermophilus, and B lactis significantly reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more in very preterm infants, but not definite late-onset sepsis or mortality. Treatment with this combination of probiotics appears to be safe.

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