Nassarawa, Nigeria
Nassarawa, Nigeria

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Akinrinade I.D.,Bingham University | Memudu A.E.,Bingham University | Ogundele O.M.,Louisiana State University
Pathophysiology | Year: 2015

Fluoride and aluminium have been reported to cause severe alterations in the brain. However, their exact mechanisms of neurotoxic activities remain unknown. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the role of fluoride and aluminium in neuronal transport, lysosomal, cell cycle protein and acetylcholinesterase activities. Method: Adult Wistar rats were given low and high doses of fluoride, aluminium and a combination of both with the control group receiving distilled water for 30 days. Blood sera and brain homogenates were quantified for alkaline phosphatase (biomarker for neuronal transport) activities. Brain sections were stained with cresyl fast violet to detect neuronal cell damage. Histochemical demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the immunohistochemical detection of cell cycle protein (anti-cyclin D) and lysosomal protein (anti-cathepsin D) were done using the antigen retrieval method. Result: Results showed severe histomorphologic alterations, dysregulation of membrane transport activities, inhibition of AChE activities and increased expression of lysosomal and cell cycle proteins. Conclusion: These findings confirm that excessive fluoride and aluminium intake induces the progression of cell death which inhibit AChE activities and trigger the release of lysosomal and cell cycle proteins. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Mpyet C.,University of Jos | Lass B.D.,Bingham University | Yahaya H.B.,Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital | Solomon A.W.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology/ Principal Findings: In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1-9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1-9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7-19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30-3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85-3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62-7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ≥15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7-12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance: There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene. © 2012 Mpyet et al.

Babalola O.E.,Bingham University | Adu A.,Rachel Eye Center | Akano A.O.,National Hospital
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

We report the case of a 32-year-old man suffering from intraocular cysticercosis, with special emphasis on the use of B-scan ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of the condition. An 8000 B-Scan Scanmate was used to obtain the ultrasound images. The patient had worked on a pig farm a few years before presentation. He presented with shadows seen in the right eye. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed that he had a choroidal detachment in the right eye inferotemporally. B-scan ultrasound revealed a subretinal subchoroidal cyst with a thick wall containing well defined intracystic echogenic entities representing scolices, and an associated retinal detachment. These findings appear to be pathognomonic. Excision of the cyst through a trans-scleral approach revealed a yellowish serous fluid, with scolices of cysticercus later confirmed histologically. B-scan ultrasound is extremely useful in the diagnosis of ocular cysticercosis and the findings can be pathognomonic. © 2013 Babalola et al.

Anzaku A.S.,Bingham University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2012

Hysterectomy is one of the most commonly performed major gynaecological procedures in women. Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) for benign disorders is commonly performed in Jos University Teaching Hospital and this study aimed at ascertaining its frequency in relation to other major gynaecological operations, demographic features of the patients, indications and safety of the procedure in this institution. A retrospective descriptive study of consecutive patients who had elective total abdominal hysterectomy performed for various benign indications during the study period from January 2001 to December 2008 was conducted. Data extracted from the case files included age, parity, presenting symptoms, indications for the surgery, intraoperative findings and post-operative complications. Data was analysed with 2008 EPI-info version 3.5.1. Total abdominal hysterectomy accounted for 18.2% of all major gynaecological operations. Majority of the women were in their fifth decade of life (65.9%) and parity of five and above (46.4%). The most common indications were uterine fibroid with or without menorrhagia (60.6%) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (27.0%). Post-operative morbidity was recorded in 40 (17.7%) of cases. Post-operative wound infection (52.5%) and fever (30.0%) accounted for the majority of the complications. There was no mortality. Total abdominal hysterectomy for benign conditions is relatively common and safe in this centre. The review of the antibiotic regimes for chemoprophylaxis may help in reducing the post-operative infection rate associated with the operation.

Babalola O.E.,Bingham University
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation. © 2011 Babalola, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Orisaremi T.C.,Bingham University
Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare | Year: 2013

Objective: The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Methods: Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15. years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Results: Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Conclusion: Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Babalola O.E.,Rachel Eye Center | Babalola O.E.,Bingham University
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Introduction: The term micropulse laser trabeculoplasty suggests that only a fraction of the laser power is applied to the trabeculum to effect pressure lowering. It has not yet been exclusively used in Negroes, and we wish to report on our experience in Nigerian patients. Methods: The study design is a retrospective chart review of our patients at the Rachel Eye Center in Abuja. The 810 diode Optos FastPulse laser was used to apply 34 cycles of treatment to 30 eyes of 16 individuals. Patients were selected based on the failure of maximal medical therapy. One patient had two extra rounds of treatment, while two patients were treated in only one eye. The pressure change at 1 hour after the treatment was analyzed. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 160 days with continuous monitoring of pressure changes. Patients’ original therapy was not disturbed. Results: Postlaser immediate drop in intraocular pressure (IOP) averaged 3.2 mmHg (CI 1.6–4.7, P,0.0001) representing 17.2% drop from baseline prelaser IOP. The drop in IOP was sustained over varying periods, from a few weeks to several months. There was a temporary spike in three instances. No serious side effects were noted. Conclusion: Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty is a useful adjunct in the management of open-angle glaucoma in Nigerians. This corroborates the findings of other researchers in western populations. © 2015 Babalola.

Anzaku A.S.,Bingham University | Musa J.,University of Jos
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2013

Objective: The study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among antenatal women attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done between February and April 2009 among 265 pregnant women enrolled from the antenatal clinic of JUTH. Screening was done between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation with a 50 g, 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT). Those with plasma glucose concentration >7.8 mmol/l were then given 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm the diagnosis of GDM. Plasma glucose measurements were performed with glucose oxidase method. GDM was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. All relevant data including demographic information, obstetric history, and risk factors for GDM, GCT and OGTT results were collected and analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1, CDC, Atlanta, USA. Results: Of the 265 pregnant women enrolled, 253 subjects were eligible for screening out of which, 28 (11.1 %) had positive GCT >7.8 mmol/l. The prevalence of GDM was 8.3 % (21/253); 95 % CI 5.2-12.4. The pattern of glucose tolerance in the study population indicated that 232 (91.7 %) had normal glucose tolerance, 6.7 % had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) while 1.6 % had overt diabetes. Previous history of fetal macrosomia was independently associated with GDM (adjusted OR 11.1; 95 % CI 2.93-42.12, P = 0.0004). Conclusion: The prevalence of GDM was relatively high among our antenatal population. Women with previous history of fetal macrosomia have a higher likelihood of having GDM and should be screened. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ogoina D.,Bingham University
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2011

Fever is a prominent feature of disease since antiquity. The febrile response is orchestrated by the central nervous system through endocrine, neurological, immunological and behavioural mechanisms. Other than a regulated rise in body temperature, fever is often accompanied by various sickness behaviours, changes in metabolic and physiological characteristics of body systems and alterations in immune responses. Fever and the febrile response, therefore, remain significant contributors to the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcome of many illnesses and diseases.This review highlights the pathophysiology of the febrile response and describes the fever types and patterns, including their clinical significance. The various medical illnesses called "fever" are also listed and the origins of their appellations discussed. © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.

Macdonald D.A.,University of Tulsa | Chazan M.,University of Toronto | Janetski J.C.,Bingham University
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

Excavations at the site of Wadi Mataha, located in Southern Jordan, revealed stratified Epipalaeolithic occupations containing Geometric Kebaran, Early Natufian, and Late Natufian deposits. Although the Middle Epipalaeolithic occupation at the site is small, it contains a human burial in a face-down burial position, along with groundstone artifacts, suggesting a unique burial practice was enacted at the site. This paper explores the Geometric Kebaran component of Wadi Mataha, focusing on the lithic assemblage and the recovered human burial. Despite the small size of the assemblage, techno-typological and functional analysis of the lithics and the presence of a human burial suggests that small, limited term occupations were still considered important and symbolically charged places in the landscape. Wadi Mataha represents one of the southernmost extents of Geometric Kebaran occupations in Jordan, making it an interesting case study to understand regional mobility and movement during the Middle Epipalaeolithic. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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