Nassarawa, Nigeria
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Orisaremi T.C.,Bingham University
Health Care for Women International | Year: 2016

In this study, which was part of a larger project I undertook in North-central Nigeria, I explored the differences in the sexual health seeking behavior of Tarok women and men and how these differences affect the spread of HIV. With the help of three research assistants, I conducted 16 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in four Tarok communities in North-central Nigeria. I found certain negative effects of gender inequality on women's sexual health seeking behavior in particular, a situation that has adverse implications for HIV acquisition and transmission. I therefore concluded that addressing the challenges of gender inequality is imperative for a sustained fight against HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Builders M.I.,Bingham University | Aguwa C.N.,University of Nigeria
Der Pharmacia Lettre | Year: 2012

Analgesics, though relatively safe, are among the commonly used and abused drugs. Many people concomitantly take the same analgesics of different brands thereby contributing to analgesic nephropathy. In this study we examined patients' attitudes towards analgesic usage. Male and female patient of ages 11 to 70 years were approached in the Nsukka community out-patient hospital; pattern of analgesic use was assessed by response to questionnaires. Six hundred and ninety three patients completed the questionnaires. The clinical conditions for which the patients used analgesics for were headache, general body pains, stomach pains, menstrual pains, chest pain, tooth ache and pains associated with other disease conditions. Acetaminophen, phenylbutazone, indomethacine, metamizole, and ibuprofen were the most frequently used analgesics. Generally 79.8% of the patients were on self medication, while 60% of the patients' preferred injectable to oral analgesics also 90% of the patients had already taken analgesics before coming to the hospital. There is need for analgesic education programme placing emphasis upon the hazard associated with analgesics abuse.

Okpataku C.I.,Bingham University
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies | Year: 2016

This study investigates substance use disorders among long-distance commercial vehicle drivers in Kaduna, Nigeria. Each consecutive 4th long distance driver who was to load his vehicle on each day was interviewed using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) to generate an International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) substance use diagnosis until a sample size of 274 was attained. The data was analysed using the SPSS version 16.0. The current and life time prevalence of an ICD-10 diagnosis was 18.4%, and 21.2% respectively. None of them had received any form of medical treatment for drug problems. Substance use disorder occur among long distance commercial vehicle drivers, and there is a need to develop a system that identifies substance use disorders and provides treatment for drug users as part of a holistic approach against drugged-driving. © 2016, CRISA Publications.

Akinrinade I.D.,Bingham University | Memudu A.E.,Bingham University | Ogundele O.M.,Louisiana State University
Pathophysiology | Year: 2015

Fluoride and aluminium have been reported to cause severe alterations in the brain. However, their exact mechanisms of neurotoxic activities remain unknown. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the role of fluoride and aluminium in neuronal transport, lysosomal, cell cycle protein and acetylcholinesterase activities. Method: Adult Wistar rats were given low and high doses of fluoride, aluminium and a combination of both with the control group receiving distilled water for 30 days. Blood sera and brain homogenates were quantified for alkaline phosphatase (biomarker for neuronal transport) activities. Brain sections were stained with cresyl fast violet to detect neuronal cell damage. Histochemical demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the immunohistochemical detection of cell cycle protein (anti-cyclin D) and lysosomal protein (anti-cathepsin D) were done using the antigen retrieval method. Result: Results showed severe histomorphologic alterations, dysregulation of membrane transport activities, inhibition of AChE activities and increased expression of lysosomal and cell cycle proteins. Conclusion: These findings confirm that excessive fluoride and aluminium intake induces the progression of cell death which inhibit AChE activities and trigger the release of lysosomal and cell cycle proteins. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Mpyet C.,University of Jos | Lass B.D.,Bingham University | Yahaya H.B.,Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital | Solomon A.W.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology/ Principal Findings: In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1-9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1-9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7-19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30-3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85-3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62-7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ≥15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7-12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance: There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene. © 2012 Mpyet et al.

Babalola O.E.,Bingham University
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the current management of onchocerciasis and its future prospects. Onchocerciasis is a disease affecting millions of people in Africa, South and Central America, and Yemen. It is spread by the blackfly as a vector and caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. A serious attempt was made by the Onchocerciasis Control Program between 1975 and 2002 to eliminate the vector in eleven of the endemic countries in West Africa, and with remarkable success. Formerly, the treatment was with diethyl carbamazine for the microfilaria and suramin for the adult worm. These drugs are now known to be toxic and unsuitable for mass distribution. In particular, they precipitate optic nerve disease. With the discovery of ivermectin, a much safer microfilaricide, and the decision of Merck to distribute the drug free of charge for as long as needed, the strategy of control switched to mass drug administration through community-directed treatment with ivermectin. So far, millions have received this annual or biannual treatment through the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. However, the problem with ivermectin is that it is a monotherapy microfilaricide which has limited effect on the adult worm, and thus will need to be continued for the life span of the adult worm, which may last up to 15 years. There are also early reports of resistance. Serious encephalopathy and death may occur when ivermectin is used in subjects heavily infested with loiasis. It seems unlikely that a break in transmission will occur with community-directed treatment with ivermectin in Africa because of population migrations and the highly efficient vector, but in the Americas some countries such as Columbia and the Oaxaca focus in Mexico have reported eradication. Vector control is only now applicable in selected situations, and particularly to control the nuisance value of the blackfly. Trials are ongoing for alternatives to ivermectin. Candidate drugs include moxidectin, a macrofilaricide, doxycycline which targets the Wolbachia endosymbiont, and flubendazole, which shows promise with the newer oral cyclodextrin formulation. © 2011 Babalola, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Orisaremi T.C.,Bingham University
Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare | Year: 2013

Objective: The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Methods: Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15. years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Results: Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Conclusion: Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Anzaku A.S.,Bingham University | Musa J.,University of Jos
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2013

Objective: The study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among antenatal women attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done between February and April 2009 among 265 pregnant women enrolled from the antenatal clinic of JUTH. Screening was done between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation with a 50 g, 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT). Those with plasma glucose concentration >7.8 mmol/l were then given 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm the diagnosis of GDM. Plasma glucose measurements were performed with glucose oxidase method. GDM was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. All relevant data including demographic information, obstetric history, and risk factors for GDM, GCT and OGTT results were collected and analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1, CDC, Atlanta, USA. Results: Of the 265 pregnant women enrolled, 253 subjects were eligible for screening out of which, 28 (11.1 %) had positive GCT >7.8 mmol/l. The prevalence of GDM was 8.3 % (21/253); 95 % CI 5.2-12.4. The pattern of glucose tolerance in the study population indicated that 232 (91.7 %) had normal glucose tolerance, 6.7 % had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) while 1.6 % had overt diabetes. Previous history of fetal macrosomia was independently associated with GDM (adjusted OR 11.1; 95 % CI 2.93-42.12, P = 0.0004). Conclusion: The prevalence of GDM was relatively high among our antenatal population. Women with previous history of fetal macrosomia have a higher likelihood of having GDM and should be screened. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ogoina D.,Bingham University
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2011

Fever is a prominent feature of disease since antiquity. The febrile response is orchestrated by the central nervous system through endocrine, neurological, immunological and behavioural mechanisms. Other than a regulated rise in body temperature, fever is often accompanied by various sickness behaviours, changes in metabolic and physiological characteristics of body systems and alterations in immune responses. Fever and the febrile response, therefore, remain significant contributors to the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcome of many illnesses and diseases.This review highlights the pathophysiology of the febrile response and describes the fever types and patterns, including their clinical significance. The various medical illnesses called "fever" are also listed and the origins of their appellations discussed. © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.

Macdonald D.A.,University of Tulsa | Chazan M.,University of Toronto | Janetski J.C.,Bingham University
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

Excavations at the site of Wadi Mataha, located in Southern Jordan, revealed stratified Epipalaeolithic occupations containing Geometric Kebaran, Early Natufian, and Late Natufian deposits. Although the Middle Epipalaeolithic occupation at the site is small, it contains a human burial in a face-down burial position, along with groundstone artifacts, suggesting a unique burial practice was enacted at the site. This paper explores the Geometric Kebaran component of Wadi Mataha, focusing on the lithic assemblage and the recovered human burial. Despite the small size of the assemblage, techno-typological and functional analysis of the lithics and the presence of a human burial suggests that small, limited term occupations were still considered important and symbolically charged places in the landscape. Wadi Mataha represents one of the southernmost extents of Geometric Kebaran occupations in Jordan, making it an interesting case study to understand regional mobility and movement during the Middle Epipalaeolithic. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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