Bingen am Rhein, Germany

Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Bingen am Rhein, Germany
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Czemmel S.,Center for Organismal Studies Heidelberg Heidelberg | Heppel S.C.,Center for Organismal Studies Heidelberg Heidelberg | Bogs J.,German Aerospace Center | Bogs J.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Flavonoids compose one of the most abundant and important subgroups of secondary metabolites with more than 6,000 compounds detected so far in higher plants. They are found in various compositions and concentrations in nearly all plant tissues. Besides the attraction of pollinators and dispersers to fruits and flowers, flavonoids also protect against a plethora of stresses including pathogen attack, wounding and UV irradiation. Flavonoid content and composition of fruits such as grapes, bilberries, strawberries and apples as well as food extracts such as green tea, wine and chocolate have been associated with fruit quality including taste, colour and health-promoting effects. To unravel the beneficial potentials of flavonoids on fruit quality, research has been focused recently on the molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation in economically important fruit-producing plants such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Transcription factors and genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes have been characterized, studies that set a benchmark for future research on the regulatory networks controlling flavonoid biosynthesis and diversity. This review summarizes recent advances in the knowledge of regulatory cascades involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in grapevine. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis during berry development is highlighted, with a particular focus on MYB transcription factors as molecular clocks, key regulators and powerful biotechnological tools to identify novel pathway enzymes to optimize flavonoid content and composition in grapes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Hichri I.,Institut Universitaire de France | Hichri I.,Catholic University of Leuven | Barrieu F.,Institut Universitaire de France | Bogs J.,German Aerospace Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites involved in several aspects of plant development and defence. They colour fruits and flowers, favouring seed and pollen dispersal, and contribute to plant adaptation to environmental conditions such as cold or UV stresses, and pathogen attacks. Because they affect the quality of flowers (for horticulture), fruits and vegetables, and their derivatives (colour, aroma, stringency, etc.), flavonoids have a high economic value. Furthermore, these compounds possess pharmaceutical properties extremely attractive for human health. Thanks to easily detectable mutant phenotypes, such as modification of petal pigmentation and seeds exhibiting transparent testa, the enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway have been characterized in several plant species. Conserved features as well as specific differences have been described. Regulation of structural gene expression appears tightly organized in a spatial and temporal way during plant development, and is orchestrated by a ternary complex involving transcription factors from the R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40 classes. This MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex regulates the genes that encode enzymes specifically involved in the late steps of the pathway leading to the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and condensed tannins. Although several genes encoding transcription factors from these three families have been identified, many gaps remain in our understanding of the regulation of this biosynthetic pathway, especially about the respective roles of bHLH and WD40 proteins. A better knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the flavonoid pathway is likely to favour the development of new biotechnological tools for the generation of value-added plants with optimized flavonoid content. © The Author [2011].

Winkel R.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Computer Aided Geometric Design | Year: 2016

The investigation of a--Bernstein polynomials and a--Bézier curves is continued in this paper. It is shown that convolution of the parameters a-=(a-1,...,a-n) is fundamental for (1) the definition of a--Bernstein polynomials, (2) a simplified derivation of the a--de Casteljau algorithm, (3) the recurrences that give the blossoming of a--Bernstein polynomials and a--Bézier curves, (4) the dual functional property and the a--dual functional property for an a--Bézier curve - it is necessary to make this distinction - and (5) the a--degree elevation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Yurova A.Y.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Volodin E.M.,Hydrometcentre of Russia | Agren G.I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Chertov O.G.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences | Komarov A.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Climatic variables have major effects on all components and processes of the global carbon (C) cycle, including soil C contents and dynamics, which in turn have significant feedback effects on the global climate. We have investigated the interactive effects between soil C and projected climatic changes using the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Climate Model (INMCM) climate-C cycle model coupled to three soil organic matter dynamics models [the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) soil biogeochemistry, ROMUL and Q models] based on three markedly differing conceptual interpretations of soil organic matter transformation (biochemical, discrete succession and continuous quality, respectively). According to simulations using all these couplings the positive effect of CO2 fertilization on plant productivity outweighed the negative effects of increased soil temperature on soil C, consequently soils were projected to contain 10-104 Pg more C in 2100 than in the preindustrial period. However, the projected soil respiration rates tended to be higher and additional C storage lower when the LPJ soil biochemistry model was used rather than either the ROMUL or Q models. Global temperatures for 2100 predicted by the INMCM coupled to either the ROMUL or Q models were almost identical, but 0.4 °C lower than those predicted by the INMCM coupled to the LPJ soil biochemistry model. The differences in global predictions obtained with the ROMUL and Q models were smaller than expected given the fundamental difference in their formulations of the relationship between the quality and temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Blesgen T.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Mechanics Research Communications | Year: 2014

In the framework of the rate-independent large-strain Cosserat theory of plasticity explicit analytic solutions are computed in three space dimensions. It is shown that the micro-rotations can be computed by solving stationary Allen-Cahn equations. While the material parameters are within a certain range, this explains the occurrence of patterning leading to a partitioning of the domain into subsets with approximately constant rotations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Blesgen T.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Acta Mechanica | Year: 2015

In this article, a numerical solution method for the finite-strain rate-independent Cosserat theory of crystal plasticity is developed. Based on a time-incremental minimization problem of the mechanical energy, a limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb quasi-Newton method applied to a finite-difference discretization is proposed. First benchmark tests study the convergence to an analytic solution. Further simulations focus on the investigation of rotation localization zones, the bending of a rod, and a torsion experiment. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Winkel R.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Computer Aided Geometric Design | Year: 2014

In Winkel (2001) a generalization of Bernstein polynomials and Bézier curves based on umbral calculus has been introduced. In the present paper we describe new geometric and algorithmic properties of this generalization including: (1) families of polynomials introduced by Stancu (1968) and Goldman (1985), i.e., families that include both Bernstein and Lagrange polynomial, are generalized in a new way, (2) a generalized de Casteljau algorithm is discussed, (3) an efficient evaluation of generalized Bézier curves through a linear transformation of the control polygon is described, (4) a simple criterion for endpoint tangentiality is established. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Chertov O.G.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2016

The analysis of publications on soil food webs (FWs) allowed calculation of the contents of soil fauna metabolites and dead mass, which can serve as materials for humification. Excreta production of FWmicrofauna reaches 570 kg/ha annually, but the liquid excreta of protozoa and nematodes compose about 25%. The soil fauna dead mass can be also maximally about 580 kg/ha per year. However, up to 70% of this material is a dead mass of bacteria, protozoa, and nematodes. The undecomposed forest floor (L) has low values of these metabolites in comparison with the raw humus organic layer (F + H). The mass of these metabolites is twice lower in Ah. Theoretical assessment of earthworms’ role in SOM formation shows that the SOM amount in fresh coprolites can be 1.4 to 4.5-fold higher than SOM in the bulk soil in dependence on food assimilation efficiency, the soil: litter ratio in the earthworms’ ration, and SOM quantity in the bulk soil. Excreta production varies from 0.2 to 1.9% of the total SOM pool annually, including 0.15–1.5% of excrements of arthropods and enchytraeidae, but the amount of arthropods’ dead mass comprises 0.2–0.4%. The calculated values of the SOM increase due to earthworms’ coprolites are of the same order (0.9–2.7% of SOM pool annually). These values of SOM-forming biota metabolites and dead mass are close to the experimental and simulated data on labile and stable SOM fractions decomposition in forest soils (about 2% annually). Therefore, these biota’s products can play a role to restock SOM decrease due to mineralization. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Winkel R.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Computer Aided Geometric Design | Year: 2015

The investigation of the umbral calculus based generalization of Bernstein polynomials and Bézier curves is continued in this paper: First a generalization of the de Casteljau algorithm that uses umbral shift operators is described. Then it is shown that the quite involved umbral shifts can be replaced by a surprisingly simple recursion which in turn can be understood in geometrical terms as an extension of the de Casteljau interpolation scheme. Namely, instead of using only the control points of level r-1 to generate the points on level r as in the ordinary de Casteljau algorithm, one uses also points on level r-2 or more previous levels. Thus the unintuitive parameters in the algebraic definition of generalized Bernstein polynomials get geometric meaning. On this basis a new direct method for the design of Bézier curves is described that allows to adapt the control polygon as a whole by moving a point of the associated Bézier curve. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Krato C.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences | Petersen J.,Bingen University of Applied Sciences
Weed Research | Year: 2012

Imidazolinone-tolerant (IT) spring oilseed rape was developed in 1987 using conventional breeding methods and first marketed in Canada in 1996. IT winter oilseed rape will be introduced into the European market. On the one hand, the IT cropping system provides the opportunity for post-emergence weed control in oilseed rape. On the other hand, the introduction of a new herbicide-tolerance (HT) trait into the European cropping systems may lead to new challenges for weed control in crop rotations containing winter oilseed rape. In this study, a 2-year field and glasshouse study was carried out to determine the transfer frequency of the HT trait from IT winter oilseed rape plants to adjacently grown susceptible winter oilseed rape plants. Furthermore, cross-resistance to sulfonylureas and differences in herbicide response of heterozygous and homozygous IT winter oilseed rape varieties to triflusulfuron-methyl were examined. The transfer frequency of the resistance trait and zygosity of the F 1-generation was investigated using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Outcrossing frequencies ranged from 2.05% in a westerly direction and 0.57% in an easterly direction at the closest distance of 2m between pollen donor (IT oilseed rape plants) and pollen acceptor (imidazolinone-susceptible plants). Outcrossing events decreased significantly with increasing distance from the pollen donor, but IT F 1-plants were still found at a distance of 45m. Of the analysed F 1-oilseed rape plants, 84% showed both independent tolerance genes for imidazolinone-tolerance (PM1 and PM2) and were heterozygous for both genes. IT winter oilseed rape plants showed a cross-tolerance against triflusulfuron-methyl, and the corresponding resistance factors were higher for homozygous biotypes compared with heterozygous ones. Consequently, outcrossing can result practically in IT volunteers with cross-tolerance to triflusulfuron-methyl. © 2012 The Authors. Weed Research © 2012 European Weed Research Society.

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