Seattle, WA, United States
Seattle, WA, United States

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the largest private foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. It was launched in 2000 and is said to be the largest transparently operated private foundation in the world Wikipedia.


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Esparza J.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Soon after HIV was discovered as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, there was an expectation that a preventive vaccine would be rapidly developed. In trying to achieve that goal, three successive scientific paradigms have been explored: induction of neutralizing antibodies, induction of cell mediated immunity, and exploration of combination approaches and novel concepts. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. In 2009, the field was reinvigorated with the modest results obtained from the RV144 trial conducted in Thailand. Here, we review those vaccine development efforts, with an emphasis on events that occurred during the earlier years. The goal is to provide younger generations of scientists with information and inspiration to continue the search for an HIV vaccine. © 2013 The Author.


Mundel T.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
PLoS Biology | Year: 2016

In the aftermath of the Ebola crisis, the global health community has a unique opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned and apply them to prepare the world for the next crisis. Part of that preparation will entail knowing, with greater precision, what the scale and scope of our specific global health challenges are and what resources are needed to address them. However, how can we know the magnitude of the challenge, and what resources are needed without knowing the current status of the world through accurate primary data? Once we know the current status, how can we decide on an intervention today with a predicted impact decades out if we cannot project into that future? Making a case for more investments will require not just better data generation and sharing but a whole new level of sophistication in our analytical capability—a fundamental shift in our thinking to set expectations to match the reality. In this current status of a distributed world, being transparent with our assumptions and specific with the case for investing in global health is a powerful approach to finding solutions to the problems that have plagued us for centuries. © 2016 Trevor Mundel.


Esparza J.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
AIDS | Year: 2013

Two vaccine trials that were conducted 50 years apart are reviewed and compared: the 1954 field trial of the Salk inactivated polio vaccine and the RV144 HIV vaccine trial conducted in Thailand between 2003 and 2009. Despite the obvious differences in science and historical periods, several lessons were identified that could inform the future HIV vaccine effort. Those lessons are related to paradigm changes that occur when science progresses, the need to test scientific hypothesis in efficacy trials, the controversies surrounding those trials, the need for strong community and political support, the participation of government and nongovernment institutions, the balance between implementation of other preventive and therapeutic interventions, and the priority given by society to develop a vaccine. If we have the humility and courage to apply some of those lessons, we may be able accelerate the development of an urgently needed HIV vaccine. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Sexually transmitted diseases, a source of widespread morbidity and sometimes mortality, are caused by a diverse group of infections with a common route of transmission. Existing vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus 16, 18, 6 and 11 are highly efficacious and cost effective. In reviewing the potential role for other vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a series of questions needs to be addressed about the burden of disease, the potential characteristics of a new vaccine, and the impact of other interventions. These questions can be viewed in the light of the population dynamics of sexually transmitted infections as a group and how a vaccine can impact these dynamics. Mathematical models show the potential for substantial impact, especially if vaccines are widely used. To better make the case for sexually transmitted infection vaccines we need better data and analyses of the burden of disease, especially severe disease. However, cost effectiveness analyses using a wide range of assumptions show that STI vaccines would be cost effective and their development a worthwhile investment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pingali P.L.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified.


Zwane A.P.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Science | Year: 2012

The concept of scarcity helps to understand and aid decision-making, particularly in the case of very poor people.


Gates M.F.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Science | Year: 2014

The development field needs to be more serious about gender inequities and women's empowerment. By ignoring gender inequities, many development projects fail to achieve their objective. And when development organizations do not focus on women's empowerment, they neglect the fact that empowered women have the potential to transform their societies. I also review the Gates Foundation's record on gender and propose some approaches to improve it.


Elliott R.L.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

In recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has faced many challenges to its business model, undergoing tremendous change and turmoil to survive. Are there any lessons to be drawn from drug discovery focused on Global Health, where there is little market incentive? © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Patent
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Date: 2014-11-14

At least one aspect of the technology provides a self-contained processing facility configured to convert organic, high water-content waste, such as fecal sludge and garbage, into electricity while also generating and collecting potable water.


Wheeler T.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Journal of epidemiology and community health | Year: 2012

Debates have raged in development for decades about the appropriateness of participatory approaches and the degree to which they can be managed, scaled and measured. The Avahan programme confronted these issues over the last 7 years and concludes that it is advantageous to manage scaled community mobilisation processes so that participation evolves and programming on the ground is shaped by what is learnt through implementation. The donor (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation) and its partners determined a standard set of programme activities that were implemented programme-wide but evolved with input from communities on the ground. Difficulties faced in monitoring and measurement in Avahan may be characteristic of similar efforts to measure community mobilisation in a scaled programme, and ultimately these challenges informed methods that were useful. The approach the programme undertook for learning and changing, the activities it built into the HIV prevention programme, and its logic model and measurement tools, may be relevant in other public health settings seeking to integrate community mobilisation.

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