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Bilāspur, India

Yarla N.S.,Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management | Bishayee A.,Larkin Health science Institute | Sethi G.,National University of Singapore | Sethi G.,Curtin University Australia | And 8 more authors.
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2016

Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA2s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Purkhayastha S.D.,Karimganj College | Bhattacharya M.K.,Karimganj College | Prasad H.K.,Assam University | Upadhyaya H.,Karimganj College | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of a healthy human vagina. They have antagonistic effect on potentially pathogenic microorganisms and vaginal pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find probiotic isolate from vaginal samples which can inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: A non-sporulating, catalase negative, Gram-positive bacteria was isolated from the vagina of a pregnant and identified women using 16s gene sequencing. The strain was identified to be Lactobacillus fermentum. The bacterium was grown in MRS broth for 24 hrs and the cell-free culture filtrate was used for antimicrobial assay. It has been found that minute quantity of culture filtrate (10 µl) exhibit inhibition against Staphyloccous aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 1060). Results: The cell free supernatant of bacterium identified as Lactobacillus fermentum, showed antimicrobial activity in minute doses (10µl) by well diffusion method. Conclusion: It is suggested that this species of Lactobacilli could be considered for use in improving genital microfloral defense against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved. Source


The pulverized A. cosmosus peel was found to contain 25 ± 0.31 % cellulose, 28 ± 0.18 % hemicellulose and 8 ± 0.07 % of lignin on dry solid basis. 1 % H2SO4delignified A. cosmosus peel yielded 38.81 % xylose, 29.31 % fructose and 18.89 % glucose under steam explosion, with a hydrolytic efficiency of 75.52 %. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results not only indicated the penetration of H2SO4in the amorphous region of the biomass and degradation of hemicelluloses but also shows the structural differences before and after pretreatment. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of pretreated A. cosmosus peel by cellulase and Mucor indicus MTCC 4349 were investigated in the present study. Important process variables for ethanol production from pretreated A. cosmosus peel were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) experiments. A three level CCD experiments with central and axial points was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables such as incubation temperature (30, 32 and 34 °C) X1, inoculum level (2, 4 and 6 %) X2 and nutrients (1/2/3) X3. Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation and contour plots were used to study the interactions among three relevant variables of the fermentation process. The fermentation experiments were carried out at flask level. The processing parameters setup for reaching a maximum response for ethanol production was obtained when applying the optimum values for temperature (30 °C), inoculum level (2 %) and fermentation medium (urea, NaH2PO4, tryptone and meat extract) for Mucor indicus MTCC 4349. Maximum ethanol concentration 10.4293 g/l was obtained after 72 h from Mucor indicus MTCC 4349 at the optimized process conditions in aerobic batch fermentation. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Nath R.,Bn College | Nath R.,Assam University | Nath R.,Assam Agricultural University | Sharma G.D.,Bilaspur University | Barooah M.,Assam Agricultural University
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The present paper deals with isolation of endophytic fungi from root, stem and leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis) shrubs collected from different tea gardens of Assam, India and evaluation of their plant growth promoting activities in vitro. Out of ten different endophytic fungi isolated the highest IAA (indole acetic acid) activity was observed for Aspergillus niger (36.49±1.17 µg/ml) followed by Penicillium sclerotiorum (36.35 ± 2.07 µg/ml). The highest GA3 activity was exhibited by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (12.46 ± 0.84µg/ml) followed by P. chrysogenum F1 (10.95 ± 0.37 µg/ml). Evaluation of insoluble mineral solubilization activities of endophytic fungi revealed P. sclerotiorum as most efficient phosphate solubilizer (215.98 ± 0.2 µg/ml), A. niger as the highest potassium solubilizer (solubilization index 1.7 4± 0.2) and P. sclerotiorum as the most efficient zinc solubilizer. It was also observed that plant growth promoting activities of the fungal endophytes increased up to a certain period of incubation and thereafter it decreased. As these fungal endophytes were found to be efficient in plant growth promoting activities they may have the potential to develop a biofertilizers consortium. © 2015, ALÖKI Kft. Source


Pulverized sugarcane bagasse consists of 37 ± 0.29 % cellulose, 28 ± 0.26 % hemicellulose, and 21 ± 0.28 % lignin on dry solid basis. About 11.58 % xylose, 6.39 % glucose, and 4.56 % fructose were liberated in hydrolysate when bagasse was treated with 1 % HNO3, under steam explosion. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated bagasse by cellulase and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077 were investigated in the present study. Important process variables for ethanol production from pretreated bagasse were optimized using response surface methodology based on central composite design (CCD) experiments. A three-level CCD experiments with central and axial points was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables. Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were further subjected to the analysis of variance, and contour plots were used to study the interactions among three relevant variables (incubation temperature, inoculum concentration, and nutrient factors) of the fermentation process. Maximum ethanol concentration 9.15 g/l was obtained after 72-h incubation with P. tannophilus MTCC 1077 at the optimized process conditions in anaerobic batch fermentation when optimum values for temperature (34 °C), inoculum level (6 %), and fermentation medium (ammonium sulfate, KH2PO4, peptone, and yeast extract) were applied. © 2015 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion Source

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